Numerous bioactive phytochemicals, such as saponins and flavonoids, have been isolated and identified from TT that are responsible alone or in combination for various pharmacological activities.
This review provides a comprehensive overview of the traditional applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology and overuse of TT and provides evidence for better medicinal usage of TT. TT is an annual plant of the family Zygophyllaceae, which is commonly known as Tribulus , Hard thorns, and goat head in China. The leaves are opposite, often unequal, paripinnate, pinnate from 5 to 8 pairs and elliptical or an oblong lanceolate. The root is slender, fibrous, cylindrical and frequently branched, bears a number of small rootlets and is light brown in colour [ 1 ].
The fruits and roots of TT, as a folk medicine, have been used for thousands of years in China. Over the last several years, it has been certified for its pharmaceutical activities for improving sexual function and cardiac protection and providing anti-urolithic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antitumour and antioxidants effects.
In the current review, we present and analyse the ethnobotanical use and the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of TT. These up-to-date research observations will be helpful in understanding the characteristics and superiorities of this traditional Chinese medicine and will be applicable in developing new products and herbal medicines in the future.
TT is native to south-eastern and Mediterranean Europe, temperate and tropical Asia and Africa, and northern Australia.
The use of TT from ancient times occurred in the traditional medicine of major cultures in these geographical areas, such as traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Indian medicine Ayurveda , and the traditional medicine of south-eastern Europe, and this has defined its ethnopharmacological relevance as a medicinal plant [ 2 ]. In Chinese Pharmacopoeia [ 4 ], the fruits of TT have been used for tonifying the kidneys and as a diuretic and cough expectorant that improves eyesight and for the treatment of skin pruritus, headache and vertigo, and mammary duct blockage.
In India, the fruits have been used in the treatment of infertility, impotence, erectile dysfunction and low libido in Ayurveda. In addition, the roots and fruits are considered to have cardiotonic properties [ 5 ].
In Sudan, TT has been used as demulcent and in nephritis and the treatment of inflammatory disorders [ 5 ]. In addition, it has been used for diuretic and uricosuric effects in Pakistan [ 6 ]. Modern investigation showed that the chemical constituents steroidal saponins and flavonoids with the prominent anti-inflammatory and antiaging activities of TT were the main contributors to the traditional pharmacological activities.
Many different compounds with a variety of biological properties and chemical structures have been identified from TT, including steroidal saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, phytosterols, tannins, terpenoids, amide derivatives, amino acids, and proteins.
Among the different types of constituents, steroidal saponins and flavonoids are considered to be the most important metabolites with various bioactivities.
Spirostanol and furostanol saponins are considered the most characteristic chemicals in TT. To date, kinds of steroidal saponins have been isolated from TT 1— Among them, there are 58 kinds of spirostane saponins 1—58 and 50 kinds of furostane saponins 59— The steroidal saponins, such as protodioscin and protogracillin, are thought to confer TT unique biological activities.
Skeletal types of steroidal aglycones in TT are shown in Figs. The flavonoids of TT are mainly derivatives of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. Quercetin , isoquercitrin , rutin , quercetin O -gent , quercetin O -gentr , quercetin O -rha-gent , quercetin O -gent O -glu are flavonoids with quercetin as the basic parent structure [ 34 , 35 , 36 ].
Isorhamnetin , isorhamnetin O -glu , isorhamnetin O -gent , isorhamnetin O -rutinoside , isorhamnetin O -gentr , isorhamnetin-3,7-di- O -glu , isorhamnetin O - p -coumarylglu , isorhamnetin O -gent O -glu , isorhamnetin O -gentr O -glu are flavonoids with isorhamnetin as the basic parent structure [ 30 , 32 , 37 ]. Kaempferol , kaempferol O -glu , kaempferol O -gent , kaempferol O -rutinoside , kaempferol O -gent O -glu , tribuloside are flavonoids with kaempferol as the basic parent structure [ 35 , 36 , 38 , 39 ].
Structures of flavonoids in TT are shown in Fig. Tribulusamide C , tribulusterine , tribulusin A , harmine , harman , harmmol , tribulusimide C , terrestriamide , N - trans -coumaroyltyramine , N - trans -caffeoylyramine , terrestribisamide are the main alkaloids isolated from the stems, leaves, and fruits of TT [ 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 ].
Structures of the alkaloids in TT are shown in Fig. Other components of TT include organic acids, amino acids and other substances. Organic acids isolated from TT are benzoic acid [ 46 ], vanillic acid, 2-methyl benzoic acid, ferulic acid [ 42 ], succinic acid, palmitic acid monoglyceride, succinic acid, docosanoic acid [ 47 ], Tribulus acid [ 48 ] and others.
The main amino acids are alanine and threonine [ 49 ]. In addition, TT also contains 4-ketopinoresinol [ 50 ], uracil nucleic acid [ 46 ], coumarin [ 47 ], emodin, and physcion [ 51 ]. TT has long been used in traditional Chinese and Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments, especially for improving sexual function, the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. It also has hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiaging, and antitumour activities.
The active extracts and constituents of TT could improve sexual function through activating aphrodisiacs and improving fertility in men. It could also activate sexual desire in postmenopausal women.
It is widely believed and insistently advertised that TT possesses aphrodisiac and pro-sexual activities due to its ability to increase testosterone or testosterone precursor levels and this view is outdated [ 2 ]. Erectile dysfunction ED is a sexual disorder characterized by the inability to achieve or maintain a sufficiently rigid erection [ 52 ].
Analysis of phytochemical and pharmacological studies in humans and animals revealed an important role for T. Rats were fed a standard diet treated with Mucuna pruriens, T.
The results indicated that the extract of TT was comparatively more potent than the two others. The hormonal effects of TT were evaluated in primates, rabbits and rats to identify its usefulness in the management of ED [ 54 ]. TT increased some of the sex hormones, which is possibly due to the presence of protodioscin in the extract. The results indicated that TT may be useful in mild to moderate cases of ED. The aphrodisiac properties of the furostenol glycoside fraction of T.
There was a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled, clinical trial as a piece of evidence for aphrodisiac activation function of TT. And the placebo group were treated by a identical appearance, colour and taste one.
It can therefore be assumed that TT can improve sexual function. In the literature, it has been concluded that the ethanol extract of T. The hexanic and aqueous soluble fraction in the methanol fractions promoted changes in the intertubular compartment because they increased the nuclear volume, cytoplasmic volume and individual volume of Leydig cells in male Wistar rats [ 57 ].
Another animal study describes the protective role of TT against AlCl 3 -induced adverse effects on male reproductive organs and fertility. TT was reported to cause reproductive system enhancement and possess antioxidant activity, which may assist in the choice of drugs for longer durations that can be prescribed safely without affecting the fertility potential in males.
The restoring potential of TT against MTZ-induced alterations in the spermatogenesis appears to be due to the presence of antioxidative flavonoids rather than steroidal saponins [ 59 ]. The in vitro addition of TT extract to human sperm could affect male fertility capacity. Overall, the sperm viability significantly improved [ 60 ]. Its probable mechanism of action involves an increase in the serum levels of free and bioavailable testosterone [ 62 ]. The fruits of TT have long been used in traditional systems of medicine for the treatment of various urinary diseases including urolithiasis.
Calcium oxalate is a major type of crystal found in kidney stones. Calcium oxalate is classified into two types: calcium oxalate monohydrate stones COM and calcium oxalate dihydrate COD. Many medicinal plants have been used for centuries for the treatment of urinary stones in spite of the lack of rationale behind their use.
The aqueous extract of TT fruits and its fractions were studied to evaluate its antiurolithiatic potential using different models. Caution: Excess intake may cause increased gastrointestinal issues including diarrhea, nausea and excess gas. Have you benefitted from compounded hormone therapy?
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With offices in Belgium and Singapore, Faktion is rapidly scaling its business and expands its professional services to both small and large enterprises in its local markets. View source version on businesswire. No matching results for ''. Seventy-one ST engineer tanks were produced in —, including experimental vehicles: 65 ST with a cable-laid bridge system, 1 ST with a sliding bridge, 1 ST with a tipping bridge, 2 UST and 2 ST with a levered bridge-laying system. Ten ST engineer tanks were used on the Karelian Isthmus during the Winter War 9 with a cable system and 1 with a lever system ; they were included in engineer groups for obstacle clearing that were established in each tank brigade during the war.
Three ST tanks of the 35th Light Tank Brigade had the most success in particular they launched two bridges over a trench and then an antitank ditch for a tank battalion during an assault on the fortified High Point The ST with the lever system of bridge laying demonstrated good results and that vehicle was used quite actively during the Winter War, while tanks with the cable system were less reliable and had limited use.
There were no losses of ST engineer tanks during the Winter War. From those ST engineer tanks only 12 were in good order, the others required repair. Specifications : weight - 7. One hundred and eighty three TT were produced in Fourteen more with a high-powered engine and improved towing device were produced in including 10 with an armoured cabin.
The manufacturer was the Factory No. Voroshilov in Leningrad a plan to produce TT with a canvas cover and TT with an armoured cabin annually was not carried out due to increases in tank production. Tests and army service showed that TT artillery tractors were underpowered for cross-country towing of trailers weighing more than 5 tonnes 5. Also around 20 T light tanks of early models were converted into artillery tractors by army units in — A transfer of overhauled old twin-turreted T tanks without turrets and armament from some tank units of western military districts for use as artillery tractors for anti-tank and regimental guns in mechanized corps began in May Tank and mechanized infantry units of the Red Army had artillery tractors based on the T chassis on June 1, Almost all TT artillery tractors of border and some inner military districts were lost during the first weeks of the Great Patriotic War.
A few remained in front-line service until at least for example, the th Tank Brigade of the Bryansk Front had a TT with an armoured cabin on May 15, , which was used as a command vehicle. No less than 50 old twin-turreted T tanks of the Transbaikal Military District were converted into artillery tractors from ; these vehicles participated in combat with the Japanese Kwantung Army in August Sign In.
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User Reviews. User Ratings.SU-T (SU, later SUP) — Self-propelled gun of an open-top design armed with a 37 mm gun or a mm regimental gun mod. The Factory of Hoisting-and-Conveying Machinery named after S.M. Kirov (in Leningrad) built 14 vehicles in probably 2 with a 37 mm gun and 12 with a 76 mm gun.