Made In America. Feels Good! Pure Feeling. Duplex This Is Crime EP. Dance In The Streets. The Healer. Our Thing. Elvis Cassetta. Longstreet Claps. Deeptical Tracks. Evil C. Peter Grummich. Berlin 8 AM. Berlin 8 Am. Dale Howard. Bounce Back EP. Memo reads, in part: Reference is made to the memorandum from the Secretary of the Treasury for the President dated July 18, , requesting permission for the Bureau of Internal Revenue to submit reports, fles and other material to the Subcommittee of the House Ways and Means Committee on Administration of the Internal Revenue Laws, in response to a request of that Subcommittee.
The request to the President for authority to the Secretary of the Treasury to submit such reports and other material was made pursuant to paragraph 2 of a memorandum, dated August 5, , to the Secretary of the Treasury from Don- ald S. Dawson, Administrative Assistant, concerning employees in the Executive Branch, which in part states: 2.
No information of any sort relating to the employees loyalty, and no investigative data of any type, whether relating to loyalty or other aspects of the individuals record, shall be included in the material submitted to a Congressional committee.
If there is doubt as to whether a certain document or group of docu- ments should be supplied, the matter should be referred to the White House. Authority is not requested to submit investigative data referring to loyalty of an employee in the Executive Branch.
Senator Joseph McCarthy, who led the anti-Communism rally, called Trumans refusal to allow access to all fles arrogant and a threat to national security. In fne condition, with rusty paperclip mark to Trumans memo, and paperclip impression and light creases to endorsed memo. At the height of McCarthyism, Truman spurns the request of a congressional committee to access the loyalty fles of the IRS.
However, Truman refused to endorse the witch hunt kindled by Joseph McCarthy, the senator from Wisconsin who hounded the president and his administration with his accusations of Communist infltration. Here, Truman refuses to bow to anti-Communist furor and ruin the careers of federal employees likely to be tarnished by the committee. They are trying to get us to believe that our Government is riddled with communism and corruption, Truman said of the McCarthyists. These slandermongers are trying to get us so hysterical that no one will stand up to them for fear of being called a communist.
For his stance, the president was accused of being soft on Communism. Just over a week after this letter, the House Ways and Means subcommittee would open an investigation into charges of corruption in the IRS. Fascinating documents providing insight into Trumans bold stance during the Red Scare. Typed memorandum, signed as president, H. I appreciated your thoughtfulness in sending it to me very much. In fne condition, with an Undersecretary offce stamp to upper right.
The Shah was given a gun salute and full military honors. Tru- man. Framed to an overall size of 20 x In fne condition, with some scattered mild toning, primarily to the crisp, intact seal. Vintage matte- fnish 9. In very good to fne condition, with rippling to edges, a few creases, scattered silvering to darker areas and edges, and mounting remnants to reverse. Accompanied by a letter from Trumans secretary Matthew Connelly, acknowledging the photo. Two TLSs, both signed Harry, both one page, 7.
First letter reads, in part; I was very sorry indeed to learn that the records of our Reserve Organization had been burned up. I am expecting to go through all the fles I have and see if we can get together a history of the organization which you and the St.
Louis Colonel worked out during the period from to Second letter reads, in part; You and I went through a great many summers together with a great many youngsters whom we trained to become offcers in the second World War. Sometime, or other, when it is convenient for both of us, I would like to sit down and talk to you and see if we can fnd the results of what we did. I had somebody, while I was in the White House, look up the list of those who were commissioned from our classes and it was a fantastic number who made good.
In fne condition, with a slight rusty paperclip mark to top of one letter. Letter to Paul Nachtman. In part: I cannot tell you how very much I appreciated that centennial book on Washingtons Inauguration and Presidency.
It will be one of the fnest items in the Library and I will be glad to have the original container so that it will be properly protected. Under his signature Truman adds a brief handwritten postscript which reads, Your work on the Convention seems to be working! In fne condition, with a horizontal mailing fold passing through upper portion of signature.
ANS signed H. Interest- ing note on both sides of an off-white slip, with a gold foil seal of the state of Missouri affxed to the reverse. In full: Salus populi suprema lex esto!
The liberal translators say The welfare of the people is the supreme law. The conservative translators say The will of the people is the supreme law.
Both are excellent. I prefer the frst. On the reverse, under the seal, Truman adds, A really great seal. In fne condition, with a touch of trivial soiling and impression of seal under text. George Washington. Fantastic display consisting of a scarce full ink signature, George Washington, on an off-white 3. Signature was part of a large March 17, , indenture between Washington and Robert Thompson. Also included is a. All three items are nicely cloth matted and framed, with a color portrait of Washington and a descriptive plaque, to an overall size of In very good to fne condition, with toning and slight paper loss to slip.
Complete Washington signatures are seldom seen. Woodrow Wilson. Partly- printed DS, one page, McMi- chaels discharge is signed across entire face by over 30 war-related personalities, including Woodrow Wilson, John J. Sims, John A. Lejeune, and other veterans of the Great War. Discharge is affxed to an identi- cal size piece of cardstock. In very good condition, with a couple of vertical creases, mild overall toning, a couple rusty paperclip marks to edges, and some light rippling.
Accompanied by a facsimile of the piece, slightly enlarged, with numbered identifcations of the signers. An unusual and likely one-of-a-kind piece. Woodrow Wil- son. Partly-printed DS as president, one page, 16 x 20, November 28, President Wilson appoints Gordon G.
In very good condition, with scattered creasing, wrinkling, and soiling, edge dings, a mild shade of overall toning, and seal mostly missing. Un- common and nicely detailed en- graved portrait of the exterior of the White House, 6. In fne condi- tion, with a uniform shade of toning from previous display. Partly-printed vellum document, signed as president, Go. Washington, one page, On February 22, , Washington had nominated Charles Harrison of Virginia to be Ensign; it was approved by the Senate the following day.
On May 31, , Washington promoted Harrison to Lieutenant. On June 2nd, the Senate did advise and consent to the appointment which is why the President noted that Har- risons appointment date would be June 2, , even though this document was dated more than six months later. In very good condition, with moderate previous storage folds, with a vertical fold affecting the Wa of signature, edges appearing to be lightly trimmed, mount- ing remnants to reverse, a few small pinholes of paper loss, and scattered light toning and soiling.
In August , President Washington had submitted to the Congress a report from Secretary of War Knox containing a statement of the troops in the service of the United States. In his introduction to his proposal for Organization of the Militia, Knox called for a small corps of well disciplined and well informed artillerists and engineers. However, no engineers served in the Army until March when war threatened with Great Britain.
At that time Congress authorized Washington to appoint temporary engineers to direct the fortifcation of key harbors. On April 7th, a bill for raising and organizing a corps of artillerists and engineers was received by the House from committee and read for the frst time. It was passed by the House and the Senate by the end of May and signed into law by President Washington on May 9, On May 31, , Washington sent his nominations to the Senate of 12 Captains, 24 Lieutenants including Charles Harrison , one Surgeon, and four Surgeons Mates as Company Offcers and Surgeon and Surgeons Mates in the Corps of Artillerists and Engineers, a corps con- sisting of one regiment with four battalions of four companies each.
When war with France appeared likely in , Congress added a second regiment to the Corps. In , Congress established a separate U. Corps of Engineers and the U. Military Academy at West Point as Americas frst engineering school. Samuel Adams. American statesman and signer of the Declaration of Independence from Massachusetts who was one of the organizers of the Boston Tea Party and one of his states most ardent supporters of the patriotic cause.
Manuscript DS, three sides of two adjoined pages, 7. A statement of property seized from William Winthrop, an American citizen, by the privateer sloop the Harlequin. And we do further declarethe said Sloop Dispatchwould have sold in the port of Boston for the above mentioned sumThe above mentioned vessel is the same that was captured the sixth day of May last on her voyage from Guadelupe to Boston, by the Harlequin Privateer of Bermuda, Capt.
Youngs protest; and which said Sloop Dispatch, said Capt. Young, there purchased on his own account, and arrived with her at this Port of Boston. Signed at the conclusion by Hood, Gay, and Rhoads. The third endorsement is written and signed by notary Samuel Barrett, attesting that Woods, Gay, and Jacobs appeared before him and attested to their statement. Boldly signed under the seal in black ink by Adams, acknowl- edging that Barrett has affxed his seal to the document, and countersigned at the bottom by John Avery.
Document has been professionally silked. Some light rippling around seal, some scattered light toning, slight show-through from docketing on reverse, and a couple trivial pencil marks, otherwise fne condition. The white seal is worn, but intact. Provenance: Sothebys. By the middle of the eighteenth century, the island colony of Bermuda, with copious trade and fshing regulations, depended on privateering to supply many of their basic needs.
With twice as many privateers at sea than any of the continental colonies, privateering became a lucrative and fairly easy business for the high-speed Bermudian sloops and large crews.
It is unclear what became of the seven, but the ship was purchased and returned to Boston by one Capt. An interesting account, boldly endorsed by Samuel Adams as Governor of Massachusetts. Charles Francis Adams, Jr. He served as a colonel in the Union Army during the Civil War.
After the war, he was a railroad regulator and executive, an author of historical works, and a member of the Massachusetts Park Commission. ALS signed C. Adams, Jr, one page both sides, 5 x 8, personal letterhead, September 18, In part: Isend you by express the proof sheet of the article Episode in Municipal Government. Please have it corrected and paged, and send me a new proofThis will occasion no delay as the proofs sent to New York will not be back for a day or two.
If the proofs I send are promptly corrected and sent correctly to me here, I can have the whole thing corrected. In fne condition, with a light pencil line through text on frst page. Ol i ver Ames. President of Union Pacifc Railroad, the 35th governor of Mas- sachusetts, and a congressman impeached in the Credit Mobilier scandal. In very good con- dition, with two vertical folds, one through a single letter of signature, two cancellation holes to body, date stamp touching top of signature, and some scattered light soiling.
Ethan Allen. Farmer, businessman, land speculator, philosopher, writer, American Revolutionary War patriot, hero, and politician. Timth Brownson On the reverse of the integral leaf the back cover of the booklet , Allen has written: The List for the Year of our Lord Beneath which are some pen markings and some arithmetic in another hand.
In good condition, with paper loss to bottom edge, moderate toning and staining, small binder holes along hinge, rough edges, and scattered creases. Although the future fourteenth state declared its independence in , it took 15 years for the Republic of Vermont to pay New York the several million dollars owed for the relinquishment of their claim on the land, thereby gaining support for Vermonts eventual admittance to the Union in Interestingly, around the same time of this correspondence, Ethan and Ira Allen were engaged in secret talks via a Canadian middleman to determine if Vermont would allow itself to become a British province, which likely would have altered the tide of the Revolutionary War.
Some historians contend that Vermont was poised to admit British troops when news of the surrender at Yorktown and the signing of the Treaty of Paris ended the confict. A rare document from one of the most recognizable names in American history. Jane Addams. American social reformer who shared the Nobel Peace Prize. TLS, one page, 5.
Letter to a woman in Massachusetts. In part: I have not seen the book The Romance of Botticelli but have today ordered it. Thank you very much for bringing it to my attention. In fne condition, with some scattered light creases and wrinkles. Benedict Arnold. One of the most well-known traitors in history, Benedict Arnold was a successful general from Connecticut during the Revolutionary War, up until he switched sides and got caught trying to help the British in Manuscript DS, signed B.
Arnold, one page, 6 x 5. Legal affdavit reads, in full: Benedict Arnold Esqr of the Plaintiff in the above cause maketh oath that Samuel Oakes the Defendant in the above cause is at this time justly and truly indebted unto him this Deponent in the Sum of Eleven Pounds Seventeen Shillings for a quantity of Ship Timber sold and Delivered by him this Deponent to the said Defendant and for Cash paid and advanced for the measuring the Same.
Very nicely double cloth matted and framed with a portrait of Arnold and George Washington, and a descriptive plaque, to an overall size of 20 x In fne condition, with light intersecting folds, a few mild strips of toning, and some scattered light edge wear.
There he resumed his mercantile ventures and loaned money to a number of American loyalists struggling to reestablish themselves. After several bad business deals, Arnold saw his income reduced and he attempted to collect from his debtors, fling more than twenty suits similar to the one offered here. His actions aroused such fury in the community that an angry mob gathered at the Arnold residence denouncing his avarice and carrying his effgy, which bore the ironic appellation Traitor!
A fne and well-preserved document from the American Revolutions notorious turncoat. Stephen F. Manuscript DS, signed by Aus- tin at the age of 17, one page, 8 x 3.
A promissory note signed by Daniel Phelps, in part: I promise John Butler to pay him or order seventy fve dollars and eighty nine cents on demand with interest. Mine A Burton. Signed at the conclusion by Phelps, and signed in the lower left corner as a witness, Stephen F. Austin, and also witnessed by Timothy Phelps. Intersecting folds, light toning along a vertical fold slightly affecting signature, vertical ink cancellation to body, and a few wrinkles, otherwise fne condition.
Austin was engaged in learning the family mercantile business in Missouri at this time, and subsequently took over the manage- ment of most of the lead business. A very clean and particularly early example. The Robert Davis Collection. Autograph Al bum. Vi nt age leatherbound hard- cover aut ogr aph al bum, 5. Sign- ers include: R. Scott 5. Heard the text that Nature renders, signed above the quote, Ernest H. Remainder of the signatures are from soccer and rugby players, church offcials, and others.
In very good condition, with front cover detached, scattered toning and rippling to some pages, and collectors notations throughout. ALS, one page, 4. Brief letter to Mr.
Intersecting folds, one through a single letter of signature, and some scattered light toning and soiling, otherwise fne condition. Susan B. An- thony, Rochester, N. A great example of Anthonys reflec- tions on the efforts to change the status of women that had taken place since the Seneca Falls Convention of Fulgencio Batista. Leader of Cuba who was in offce from to and from to , at which time he was overthrown by Fidel Castro.
DS, in Spanish, one page, Untranslated document regarding the literary aid orga- nized by the Province of Havana in commemoration of Jose Marti a Cuban revolutionary leader who was killed in fght for independence from Spain. In very good condition, with mild toning to document, heavier at edges, some scattered foxing, and signature over embossed seal. Edward Bates. Attorney general during the Civil War War-dated ALS signed Edw. Bates, one page, lightly-lined, 5 x 8, Attorney Gen- erals Offce letter- head, September 9, Letter to Mrs.
Jefferson Thomas. In part: I have the pleasure to send you, en- closed herewith, the desired pass for Miss Gordon, Also, a sealed note addressed to you, in the hand writing of Mr. Secy Stanton. Light block of toning over text and signature and a few small pencil notations, otherwise fne condition. Accompanied by several pieces of correspondence to Bates from Gordon and Thomas.
Letter to Sir Robert. In part: Permit me to thank you very heartily for your kindness in delivering the photograph of the children of Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Albany, also her Royal High- ness autograph. I prize both very highly and am much gratifed that the Duchess of Albany and her children enjoyed the show so much. Cloth matted and framed with a portrait of Barnum and Tom Thumb to an overall size of 17 x In fne condition, with a central horizontal fold and a mild shade of overall toning from previous display.
David Ben- Gurion. Signed book: Israel, A Personal His- tory. Hard- cover with slipcase, 7. Signed in blue ballpoint, D. Ben-Gurion, on the frst free end page which also bears a pre-printed inscription to Mr.
Morton Silberman. In fne condition, with scattered wear and partial separa- tions to edges of slipcase. Ni chol as Biddle. American f i nanci er and president of the Bank of the United States. ALS signed N. Biddle Prest, one page, 7. Brief letter to physician Thomas Cadwalader. In part: As I shall beab- sent on the business of the Bank.
I hereby appoint you to act in my stead as Presi- dent of the Bank of the United States. In very good condition, with intersecting folds, docketing notation to top right, blue pencil notation to top, uniform toning, and a bit of scattered light soiling.
Itzhak Ben- Zvi. Second president of Israel who served from until his death. Letter to a gentleman. In part translated : A few weeks ago I spoke with Mr. Dobkin and Mr.
Shapiroand they promised to look into the matter after they receive the [immigration] certifcates. I ask you to look into the matter. A small notation has been added in another hand at the bottom. In very good condition, with torn punch holes to right edge, a central vertical fold, scattered creases, and a uniform shade of toning. Alexander Graham Bell. ALS signed A. Graham Bell, two pages, 4.
Letter to Mr. In part: I am sorry that a bad cold compels me to keep indoors just now. I fear I may not be able to go with you tomorrow. I have been running down for some weeks past, and intend to run up to Canada to recruit towards the end of this week.
Kind regards to all friends at Lower Falls. A few small separations along in- tersecting folds, one fold through a single letter of signature, a few wrinkles, and mild toning to frst page, otherwise fne condition. After spending the summer of at the family home in Canada, he returned to Boston and decided to concentrate on his experiments in sound which eventually led to his frst successful transmission via telephone three years later in Lizzie Borden.
On August 4, , the axe-mutilated body of prosperous businessman Andrew J. Bordens body had been found by his thirty-two-year-old daughter, Lizzie ; soon after others arrived on the scene, the similarly brutalized corpse of Andrews wife and Lizzies stepmother , Abby, was discovered in an upstairs bedroom.
Thus began a sordid saga that would ultimately become one of the most celebrated unsolved cases in the history of American crime. Exceedingly rare ALS signed L. Borden, one page both sides, 4 x 5. Letter to Miss Jennie F. In full: I should be ready to see you Wednesday the sixteenth any time after fve in the after-noon. Yes I am going to tie the pages and want your help. I would like to have you get the ribbon. Get as much and the width you want and let the color be royal purple please.
In fne condition, with a central horizontal fold and a partial separations along hinge. Accompanied by the original mailing envelope addressed in Bordens hand, with the stamp clipped off. Letter is housed in a custom-designed purple leather folder. Shortly after being acquitted of her father and stepmothers murders in June of , Lizzie and her sister Emma moved to a new house christened Maplecroft on French Street, a fashionable neighborhood at the time.
It was there that she penned this letter. The trial that had taken place in the courtroom could not compare to the media trial in which Lizzie was portrayed as a cold-blooded murderer: regardless of the courts decision and her public exoneration, the damage to her reputation could not be undone. She was forever ostracized from Fall River society, living out the remainder of her life at Maplecroft in relative isolation.
Over a century after the Borden murders, the mystery continues to hold the publics interest, making the demand for Lizzies limited autograph material very high; this is only the third letter we have ever offered, and the only one weve seen in the last fve years.
Niels Bohr. Danish physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his theory of atomic structure. ALS, one page, 5 x 3. Letter to thanks to Dr.
Basil OConnor. In part: Thanks for your Christmas greeting and the most beautiful and inspiring book of Raymond Fosdick. In fne condition, with paperclip impression to top left and a bit of trivial soiling. Bohr is rare in handwritten letters. Richard E. Remember that verses use the same music with different words.
The verses and choruses in this song are built on the same bar progression. While the verse and chorus may seem different on the first listen, repeated listenings reveal that the verse and chorus use the same melody and chord progression, with only slight changes made between sections.
Listen to this track and see if you can hear the similarity. Carter, recorded in Released before the era of country charts in the United States. There were no Billboard country charts until Guitar accompaniment. Guitar solo. A second aspect of this song involves irregular counting of measures.
When you try to count mea- sures during the verses of this song, the twelfth bar contains only one beat, while in the choruses the fourth and twelfth measures contain only one beat. The only instance of this bar pattern not to drop these beats is the first instrumental verse on the guitar. The diagram below summarizes the four common formal types found in rock music.
While we will encounter more complicated formal designs later in this book, these four will apply to a large majority of the songs we study. Listening for form in rock music helps us gain a deeper understanding of how music is structured. It provides fans and students of this music with a glimpse of how musicians, songwriters, produc- ers, and arrangers organize these songs. Simple verse All verses based on same music, no chorus. AABA Verses and bridge based on different music; can employ full or partial reprise.
The musical instruments used in rock music, and especially the ways these instruments are combined, are central to the myriad musical styles discussed in this book. While most rock fans can tell the difference between an electric guitar and a keyboard, or a drum set and a saxophone, far fewer listeners understand exactly how these instruments typically work together in songs.
Instruments in rock frequently have specific roles within the music. The task of the rhythm section rhythm section is to establish a solid foundation for singers, instrumental soloists, and other members of the group that focus on melody. A drummer may also use several cymbals, most often a larger ride cymbal and a smaller crash cymbal. The rhythmic patterns drummers play work something like the gears of a clock, with some gears moving quickly and others moving more slowly.
The bass and snare drums are generally played at slower intervals, and often seem to be in dia- logue with one another. He is using two bass drums, striking these with the pedals using his right and left foot. The drum set can be enhanced by the addition of other percussion instruments, such as tambourine, cowbell, conga drums, or even hand claps.
The Low Down: Electric Bass. Often the bass player will create her part around the rhythmic pattern played on the bass drum, stressing those notes rhythmically while filling in other notes to provide an interesting bass line. Much early rock music used the acoustic upright bass, which could be amplified; but by the early s, the more easily amplified electric bass guitar was the preferred instrument for most popular music except jazz and country.
The bass both acoustic and electric usually has four strings that match the bottom four strings of the guitar. The distance between the tuning of guitar and bass strings is what musicians call an octave, a lower or higher version of the same note. Harmony in Motion: Rhythm Guitar and Keyboards. The electric guitar produces little sound on its own, but can reach high volume levels when connected to an amplifier.
In s rockabilly, the acoustic rhythm guitar often replaces the drum set and provides the rhythmic propulsion that drives the song forward. More often, though, the rhythm gui- tar part complements the bass and drum parts, and these three instruments work together to establish the harmonic and rhythmic basis for the song.
The rhythm guitarist also has to be careful to fit his part in with the bass and drums. Sometimes if the bass locks in with the bass drum, the rhythm guitar will lock in with the snare, emphasizing the snare part while filling in the remaining space between beats. Sometimes the piano, organ, or synthesizer is used along with, or even in place of, the rhythm guitar. If keyboards or organs are used with rhythm guitar, they may play the same rhythmic figure as the gui- tar or simply sustain chords while the guitar plays its more rhythmic part.
However the parts are orga- nized, rhythm guitar and keyboard players have to be careful not to conflict musically. The electric bass plays a prominent part in sion of the music. Singers are sometimes very free rock and is central to funk music.
Many listeners attend as closely to the lyrics as to the melody that projects them, so a vocal performer has to be sure that the words come across effectively. Many solo vocalists are also accompanied by background vocals. Like the rhythm section parts described earlier, the vocals are usually coordinated with one another and with the rhythm section to avoid conflict between parts.
In order to create contrast in arrangements, an instrumental solo is often introduced somewhere past the midpoint in a song. Keyboard instruments most common in rock music are piano, organ, synthesizer, and digital piano. Keyboardist Rick Wakeman from the progressive rock group Yes, who uses synthesizers, organ, and electric piano in this photo, was known for his large battery of instruments.
In all of these cases, the instrumental soloist is the central focus of the music for the duration of the solo, taking the place usually reserved for the singer.
The job of the rhythm section remains the same as it was during the other sections of the song: to support the soloist. The instrumental solo often makes the return of the vocals sound fresh, since there is usually no singing during the solo. Horns and Strings: Sweetening the Sound. Some arrangements use horns or strings to add the finishing touches to a track. Strings can make an arrangement sound bigger and more elegant.
Strings are often saved until late in the arrangement and are employed to give the end of the track a convincing lift.
An arranger has to be careful that the horns or strings added to sweeten a track stay out of the way of the rhythm section and singers, creating a backdrop that enhances the song without drawing too much attention to itself. It is coda easy to hear each instrument during the introduction, since the band brings them in almost one at a time. Notice that the guitar is also doubled by the organ here, although the effect is subtle because the organ is also distorted and sounds like a second guitar.
As the chorus begins , note that the organ becomes more sustained, as do the guitar and bass, while more crashes and drum fills and a second vocal harmony are added. The verses and choruses that follow are mostly the same as the first pair, although the verse and chorus during the guitar solo are different The arrival of the chorus during the solo is particularly dynamic , as is the return to the guitar riff in the passage before the beginning of the last verse As mentioned earlier, it sometimes helps to follow a single part all the way through a tune, for example listening to the bass only, then playing the song again and focusing only on the drums.
While rock music sometimes gives the impression of musical simplicity, there are often layers of complexity waiting to be discovered. The tapestry of musical texture often does not draw attention to itself; a good rhythm section helps the listener focus on the vocals or solos, making the background instrumentation relatively transparent. There is, for instance, only one recording of Sgt. There are two principal approaches to thinking about what a recording represents.
On these types of recordings, the sounds should seem natural and indis- cernible from an actual performance. This approach to recording is frequently used in classical, jazz, and folk music. The second approach to recording is to exploit the possibilities offered by the studio. The recording studio also allows instruments to be combined in ways that would not easily work in a natural acoustic setting.
Since the early s, live performance technology has made it increasingly possible to combine acoustic instruments with louder electric ones, which is largely a result of sounds that first occurred in the studio.
Reverb and Echo. Whether we are aware of it or not, every space we enter has specific acoustic properties. Whenever a sound is made, it is the result of a series of vibrations moving through the air. Some of these vibrations reach our ears directly from the source, while others bounce around the room and reflect back to us. Hard surfaces reflect sound; more porous ones like carpeting, curtains, or furniture absorb sound. Architects who design concert halls are keenly aware of this, and they devote considerable energy to determining the balance of harder and softer surfaces in a hall and how these surfaces will be angled.
The idea, of course, is to create a space that makes the performances in the hall sound as acoustically rich as possible. Major record companies have in the past maintained their own studios that have been acoustically engineered for the best natural sound.
For them, the task is not only to capture the way the musicians sound but also to commit to tape how those musicians sound in that specific room. Stories abound of vocals that were recorded in bathrooms, or guitar parts that were recorded in hallways or stairwells in order to take advantage of the natural acoustics of those spaces.
This dry sound is then fed through the reverb device to produce the desired sound. Echo tends not to be of much concern to those who employ the audio snapshot approach; mostly they try to avoid it. In rock, echo is used extensively and often on voices. Together with reverb, echo can make the singing voice sound much richer and even mask certain imperfections in tone or intonation.
Frequency also plays a major equalizers role in recording techniques, as equalizers are used to affect the quality of most sounds. In the process of recording instruments, an engineer has a signifi- cant amount of control over the timbre of each recorded sound; for each micro- phone in use there may be multiple controls that work like the treble and bass on your stereo. Among the most successful producers to work in mono was Phil Spector. When we hear sounds in the natural world, we can locate the position of a sound source because the sound enters each of our ears in a different way.
In music that is recorded in stereo, the engineer can control whether a sound comes out of the right or left speaker, or some combination of the two. It is, of course, impossible for the sounds that seem to be com- ing from the center to really be coming from there; after all, you are sitting between the headphone speakers and there is no center speaker physically present.
Stereo sound is thus an aural illusion that we construct as a result of how we hear. Engineers use this phenomenon to separate sounds so we can hear more detail in the recording. If you adjust one to sound like it is coming from the right and the other from the left, each will be much more distinct. So, in a stereo recording, the instruments and voices are arranged across the stereo field and the result is that the recording sounds clearer and more sonically complex.
A mixing board is used in two ways: first, to record the sound to tape or more recently to a digital recorder , and second, to play the recording back. In rock, sounds are often recorded dry except when special room effects are desired and stored for playback. Until the s, most popular music was recorded using a single performance. However, with the advance of digital technology in recent years, the number of tracks available is so large that track space is no longer a tech- nical limitation. This input mixing board shows the limited resources of performers and engineers in the recording studio during the early s.
Note the increase in channels on the mixing board. This shot of a Pro Tools session shows how digital recording software often directly emulates physical recording equipment.
After an angular introduction featuring the electric guitar, there are several measures of vamp before the first verse begins.
A return to the intro- duction and vamp close the song as it fades out. In terms of the instrumentation, the track uses a fairly standard rhythm section of rhythm guitars, electric piano, bass, and drums. The vocals are mostly solo, with some backing vocals added dur- ing both the verse and chorus sections.
As is usual for rock, the lead vocals and bass are in the center. Three electric guitars are involved in the rhythm section: two of these are panned right and left and play a part almost identical to the piano, which is panned center. When the synthesizer strings enter in the second chorus, they are panned left. Thus, in addition to the separation that occurs through stereo placement, ambience is also used to help keep the parts distinct.
The distribution of instruments and equalization across the full frequency range makes the recording sound full, with plenty of low end balanced by bright highs. Thus, images of rock have been vital to the formation of cultural tastes for dance, fashion, and behavior that would not have been possible without the combination of rock music with the moving image.
Although the average listener often has experience with the visual aspects of rock, when studying rock in an academic setting it is informative to consider the relation- ship between music and images. Similarly, knowledge of the original context can change how we might view a video performance.
Moreover, dramatic feature films star- ring rock musicians and performances have been popular for decades, and serve a different function than documentaries that compile footage from live performances. Rock Television. Prior to their demise in the s, variety shows presented compelling rock performances on network television.
They featured comedy, skits, dancing, and musical performances, among many other odd acts. Other variety shows in the s, such as Hullaballoo, Shindig! Early dance shows popular during the s included American Bandstand and The Arthur Murray Party, both of which became nationally syndicated. The dance show format maintained popularity well past the s, with American Bandstand running until the late s. Television has also been an important forum for artists starring in musical sit- coms.
A modern brand of this same musical sitcom can also be found in Glee, which has struck a chord with television audiences while racking up dozens of hit singles and millions of worldwide album sales. Rock Film. From the beginning of the rock movement, many rock music perfor- mances were featured in motion pictures. Throughout the s and s rock musicians continued to star in films.
Some of these might be considered serious works, while others simply served as popularity vehicles. Prince also starred in a series of films during the s, including Purple Rain , Under the Cherry Moon , and Graffiti Bridge These are only a few of the many films after the s to blur the line between music video and Hollywood feature, exposing the visual aspects of rock music to a wider audience. Concert films have also been important to the history of rock music.
Show, a feature film shot at the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium that included performances by many of the most popular rock stars of the time, ranging from British invasion groups to James Brown.
As rock became more prominent, attracting the attention of Hollywood and the financial clout to secure important directors, the artistic quality of the concert film continued to improve. Music Videos. Since the advent of rock, artists have also used films as a vehicle for advancing their careers and increasing their popularity. Short films made to pro- mote singles date back at least to the s, although these were more a part of the European market than the American one.
The Beatles created some of the earliest promotional videos, intended to promote their music after they stopped performing live. The promo- tional video, which later became called the music video, has an extraordinary history that eventually made a massive impact on the entire popular music industry. The emergence of s music videos and the rise of MTV will be covered in depth later in the text. From this clip, we learn several things about the connection between video and musical performances during the early rock era.
First, we see how the government was attuned to the power of musical performances to inspire youth to action. Finally, we witness how the larger context of a video performance can be lost over time, and how reconnecting these settings is valuable to the study of rock music and its history. Throughout the remainder of this book, many notable performances in films, on television, and in music videos are discussed in special Viewing Rock boxes.
In addition, many of the online Backstage Pass essays provide commentary on his- torically significant performances that are available on commercial video, including DVD and Internet media services like Netflix, Amazon, and iTunes.
Further study of these performances can be a rewarding experience that enhances the aural con- sideration of rock recordings. Before we consider the emergence of rock and roll, however, we will need to get a clear picture of how the music business was con- figured in the first half of the twentieth century.
For Additional Online Resources, visit: digital. Dorling Kindersley, Nona Willis Aronowitz, ed. People were forced to move from their flight, fought for the right to vote, battled for homes into shantytowns, and many stood in and against Prohibition, danced new dances, line for bread every day. Although American casu- Delano Roosevelt was elected president.
The modern and national parks. Roosevelt also estab- world was torn apart and people everywhere lished the Works Progress Administration were horrified. WPA , which contributed significantly to the With the war finally over, Americans felt arts. With the creation of federal agencies simultaneous relief and fear, and the result like the WPA, along with the establishment was a sense of desperate recklessness.
States out of its psychological, if not its Songs remained the dominant form of pop- economic, depression. Like Roosevelt, cally. Joining forces with Italy and Japan,.
The war was over, , the country entered the fray in the but the world had entered the atomic age. Pacific, and after Germany declared war on While war had ravaged Europe and rocked the United States, in Europe as well.
Optimism reigned at. Many women smoked, danced, and drank in public for the first time in the s. Bill, which allowed audience. Being such a large and prosper- more Americans to attend college than ever ous generation had its benefits. After these styles came together in Nashville. While the song has come to conjure up nostalgic and warm images of snowy winter nights in front of a crackling fire, the original opening shown on the previous page has the singer stuck in sunny Southern California during the Christmas season, lamenting the balmy climate.
Consider, for instance, that Presley appeared before a national audience, making his performance one that the entire country reacted to. How was it possible, then, for this first wave of rock and roll to saturate American culture so quickly and thoroughly? And what were the musical and stylistic sources of this new style? This chapter will examine these issues as well as outline the world of popular music before rock and roll made its rowdy entrance onto the national scene.
Few musical styles emerge fully formed and in isolation from other styles of their time, and rock and roll is no exception. Rock and roll developed out of three principal sources that preceded it: mainstream popular music, rhythm and blues, and country and western.
Each of these styles has its own history and development in the decades before rock and roll. One of the important changes that took place in pop- ular music in the first half of the twentieth century was the emergence of a national audience. But at the end of the nineteenth century, the majority of Americans lived in a world very much conditioned by their local and regional surroundings.
People tended not to travel nearly as much as we do now, and in many parts of the country there was no quick access to news of national and world events. In terms of popular musical styles, this meant that styles often could be identified with particular regions of the country. Early gramophone cylinders and disks made recorded performances available to many Americans, but the music that people knew still tended to be mostly the music they could either play or hear performed in person, perhaps at a vaudeville show.
Music was also available through oral tradition, and one could learn to play tunes by ear, without having to read music. The technologi- cal and marketing developments in radio and motion pictures played a central role in making the same kinds of popular entertainment available in all parts of the country during the first few decades of the century, in many ways breaking down regional differences.
These films helped create a national entertainment culture. Later we will consider the role films played in the music business during those years, but the central role of radio in build- ing this national audience is probably just as crucial. Radio technology was developed at the end of the nineteenth century and used initially for military purposes and to commu- nicate with ships at sea; the first radio broadcasts of consequence for our story date back to , when KDK A in Pittsburgh and WWJ in Detroit went on the air with a blend of news, local infor- mation, and live music.
It would be hard to exaggerate the marked effect early radio had on American culture, and especially on the history of popular music. For the first time, listeners within range of a regional radio station could enjoy music that might otherwise be unavailable to them.
Now it no longer mattered as much where one lived: the same news, music, drama, and comedy were simultaneously avail- able to significant portions of the country. Listeners within the transmitting range of stations in Philadelphia, Buffalo, Detroit, Chicago, and Los Angeles, for instance, could all hear the same programming at the same time.
Network radio audiences sud- denly became national audiences. Amos Freeman Gosden and Andy Charles Correll work radio; as a consequence, they retained their regional are shown here broadcasting their show in The federal government even licensed a few stations not only for high power but also for exclusive use of a particular frequency. A more effective way of reaching a large audience was to link a number of local and regional stations together to form a network.
Soon NBC was running two networks, and other networks were getting into the business as well. This gave the networks a tremendous range of program- ming from which to choose. Current talk radio also employs this model, as shows originate from many parts of the country but play to a national audience. All of this was first developed for radio in the s. It was thought that by playing a record you were trying to fool people into believing a performance was live when it really was not, so most music was performed live on the air.
Modern radio listeners expect that the music they hear is recorded, but from the first broad- cast moments of radio, listeners assumed and expected that what they heard over the airwaves was occurring live and in real time. This was, of course, a happy situa- tion for most musicians, who eagerly took advantage of the opportunities for ample work.
Even though affiliates were fed network programming for large segments of the broadcast schedule, most larger stations also employed a studio band for local programming. Network radio programming offered listeners a wide range of entertainment: soap operas, adven- ture shows, and comedies were all popular, as well as variety shows and feeds from dance clubs across the nation. The Lone Ranger Clayton Moore, left is shown with radio, a song could be heard far and wide in a here with his faithful sidekick, Tonto Jay Silverheels.
Network radio helped create a national audience, but by the late s that audi- ence was beginning to move away from radio and toward the newest technological marvel: television. As more Americans could afford to acquire television sets in the late s and s, the national audience migrated away from radio and toward television. It was crucial to the rapid and broad success of rock and roll that this new style appear before a national audience.
Fifteen years earlier, that audience would. A Note on Recording Technology As a result of the popularity of the audiobook format of Hitler was far away from the radio studio. When the Allies recent years, recordings of some old radio broadcasts have conquered Germany, they found that the radio stations all been released and are readily available.
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