Am not I grieved with them, ingrate? Psalm CXL. And from the violent preserve my life : 2 They in their hearts imagine deeds abhorred, All the day long intent to stir up strife : 3 As serpents they prepare their tongues to strike ; The poison of their lips is adder-like! Day by day, For them in their calamities I pray. In Thee I trust : Oh pour not out my blood!
No going-forth, to grieve our eyes; No murmurs in our streets arise! What will not be on them bestowed, Who have Jehovah for their God? Psalm CXLV. Jehovah, as long as I live I will praise : I will sing to my God as my years onward roll ; AVhile my being endures — to the end of my days! Who keepeth the truth; who His promises heeds, And executes judgment for all the oppressed; Who provides for the hungry ; the famishing feeds, And to loose men from prison sends forth His behest!
Jehovah the orphan and widow sustains, But the plans of the wicked defeats with His frown : 10 Zion! In the heav'ns praise our God; in the heights sing His praise: 2 All ye angels of His!
His high praises record ; Ye His minist'ring hosts! To Jehovah your grateful hosannas outpour: 4 Ye heav'ns of the heav'ns!
Kings, people, and princes! His majesty sing; Ye old men and children! His wonders recite! Let your anthems of praise to Him only arise, For His name in the heights and the depths is supreme ; His glory transcends both the earth and the skies! Where assemble His saints a new song let us sing! Psalm CL. Let the earth and the firmament tell of His might! Let all breathing things sing Jehovah's high praise! Let His people the courts of His sanctity crowd, And loud hallelujahs the universe raise!
Aben Ezra. Ben Mel. Ben Melech. Lee Professor Lee. English Bible, Lowth Bishop Lowth. Bythner edit. The Septuagint. Margin of English Bible. Book of Common Prayer. Dathe edit. Xoyes edit. Boston, Deed. George Phillips. French and Skinner edit. Psalms in Hebrew, with a Critical, Exegetical, and Fab. Philological Commentary. Hare Bishop Hare. Interlineary Hebrew and Eng- Schul. Bagster edit. Bishop Horsley. Latin Vulgate. The word here denotes intense anguish of mind, Phil.
See his note. Dathe ; for thou art a searcher of the heart and reins, O righteous God! Psalm YIII. Psalm X. Marg, Heb. Psalm XI. Psalm XY. Thou art my happiness. There is nothing beyond Thee, to the holy in this earth! And in his comment there is this remark upon his translation of the words, beyond thee. They are applied to the next verse, as if the speaker had said: And also to the hearts of the saints, who are in the earth, and the excellent in whom is all my delight, there is not any happiness above that which is from Thee; for thou art their portion and their inheritance.
See Phil. For arrangement see F. See Byth. Concerning the works of men, etc. My mouth transgresseth not, in compliance with the doings of men, F. The sacred writers employ this term to signify a body pampered to excess by luxury and self-indul- gence, F. According to Bellarmine, the word signifies to love with the greatest intensity: Amare ex intimis visceribus. See also Ken.
For the notion of combining fear with motion in this verb, we have the Chald. Mend, renders this hemistich in much the same way. Optionem relinquo lectoribus meis; mutatione lectionis recepta? Andi nos, quando precamnr, Dathe; O Jehovah, save the Xing! May he answer ns when we call!
So Ag. He will swallow them, i. Jehovah, Heb. First Version, paraphrased in parts. Milton's Par. Psalm XXV. Thus Yar. Psalm XXYI. To be every morning in his temple, Phil. T; O Jehovah, Heb. Perhaps the whole verse may be thus assigned.
See Psalm xxiii. The singular is probably put for the plural many angels , as hornet is put for hornets in Exod. The word occurs sixteen times in this Psalm. Psalm XXXY. The notion of speed is here combined with strength, Phil. So also Ges. The verbs are in the fut. The same remark applies to the verbs in vers. I am left desolate, E. Some prefer attaching to the word here translated feasts the sense of mockers, Phil.
The two first verbs in pres. After an attentive study of these verses in connexion with those which follow, the metrical translator has thought it necessary to put the verbs they contain in the present tense. That, in very many instances, the context alone can determine by what tenses pariicular Hebrew verbs should be translated, is unquestionable: and that past tenses may often be translated by present ones, Mich, clearly shows.
See a note in Bishop Lowth's fifteenth lecture on Hebrew Poetry. The Heb. Noldius assigns seventy-four meanings to it. The sense of the words in this verse is, that thou hast rendered me obedient to thee, Phil. Psalm XLI. Most of the ancient translators see Phil. See, however, Ps. Psalm XLII. The evidence is strong in favour of the original reading being my face, or my countenance, as it is in the last verses of this and the following psalm; see Phil.
See Ps. Psalm XLIY. See also Hors. See First Version. See also Byth. T; the rich of the nations, Heb. Psalm XLYI. Psalm LII. Psalm LIII. Psalm LY. They change not from a state of impiety to one of obedience to God.
Psalm LVII. Second Version— Several of the notes to the First Version, are equally applicable to this. The washing his feet in the blood of the wicked implies victory, and alludes to the practice of pursuing the vanquished over the battle-field; the pursuers, necessarily as it were, dipping their feet in the blood of the slain, with which the ground is covered, Phil. Hors, F. The whole verse may be understood as follows : They wander about for food: if they be not satisfied with food , then they will not NOTES.
See also Phil. Psalm LXI. So Phil, exxnains the passage. Thus paraphrased by Mend. The phrase once and twice, is a Hebraism for many times, Phil. Psalm LXIV. A speech drawn from a horse, which is subdued, or deprived of liberty, by a rider sitting on it, Phil.
The fat. The remark on ver. For the meaning of the expression 'in Jah,' see Hors. Lee, Ew. Lee: so also F. See Marg. Parkhurst notices this as a very difficult text. Phillips, refer- ring to vers. Herder thinks, that in several verses of this psalm use has been made of ideas and images suggested by the song of Deborah. The passage, the dweller at home has shared the spoil, has, in his opinion, a reference to Deborah herself.
Speaking of vers. Le tout est visi- blement emprunte a l'eclatante victoire remportee par Debora. Alors, la liberte se levait sur Israel, au point le plus septentrional et le plus boise de la Judee. La saison des pluies favorisa la victoire ; il est done bien naturel qu'en celebrant cette circonstance, on n'oubliat pas de parler de la neige dont la fonte grossissait encore les eaux L'ironie concernant ceux qui sont renfermes chez eux au lieu d'aller combattre, est egalement empruntee a l'hymne NOTES.
La prophetesse reproclie, sans detour, aux tribus indolentes, de preferer le belement des troupeaux aux cris des batailles, de pousser la pusillanimite jusqu'a rester cliez elles, menie pendant les jours des plus rudes epreuves, et d'admirer le plumage argente et les ailes a reflets d'or de leurs pigeons, tandis qu'une femme, Vhabitante de la maison, Debora ce nom signifie abeille , distribute le butin.
Herder thus explains the allusion to Mt. Salmon: Puisque le Mont-Tsalmon, fort peu eleve et sitae dans la partie la plus meridio- nale de la Judee, etait couvert de neige, il devait y en avoir bien d'avantage sur les montagnes plus hautes qui etaient le theatre de la guerre.
Tel etait le raisonnement des tribus etablies au sud de la Judee; aussi sont elles restees tranquilles aupres de leurs pigeons. The metrical translator, not having at hand the German edition of Herder, On the Poetry of the Hebrews, has availed himself, in the above extracts, of a French translation, admirably executed, by Mdnie.
According to Herder, vers. Vous contemplez, aux rayons du soleil, le plumage eclatant de vos pigeons et le reflet d'or de leurs ailes etincelantes! Lorsque le Dieu des armees vainquit les peuples, lorsqu'il dent les heros de Canaan, oh!
O Lord God! Base insinuator that he is! What has Glaucus insinuated? Smothering his resentment at the last part of Ione's question, Arbaces continued: 'You know his pursuits, his companions his habits; the comissatio and the alea the revel and the dice make his occupation; and amongst the associates of vice how can he dream of virtue?
Know, my Ione, that it was but yesterday that Glaucus boasted openly—yes, in the public baths—of your love to him. He said it amused him to take advantage of it. Nay, I will do him justice, he praised your beauty. Who could deny it? But he laughed scornfully when his Clodius, or his Lepidus, asked him if he loved you enough for marriage, and when he purposed to adorn his door-posts with flowers?
Be assured that I myself disbelieved at first, and that I have now painfully been convinced by several ear-witnesses of the truth of what I have reluctantly told thee. Ione sank back, and her face was whiter than the pillar against which she leaned for support. I hastened this morning to seek and to warn you.
I found Glaucus here. I was stung from my self-possession. I could not conceal my feelings; nay, I was uncourteous in thy presence. Canst thou forgive thy friend, Ione? It cannot hurt thee, Ione, for a moment; for a gay thing like this could never have been honored by even a serious thought from Ione. These insults only wound when they come from one we love; far different indeed is he whom the lofty Ione shall stoop to love. It is not without interest to observe in those remote times, and under a social system so widely different from the modern, the same small causes that ruffle and interrupt the 'course of love', which operate so commonly at this day—the same inventive jealousy, the same cunning slander, the same crafty and fabricated retailings of petty gossip, which so often now suffice to break the ties of the truest love, and counteract the tenor of circumstances most apparently propitious.
When the bark sails on over the smoothest wave, the fable tells us of the diminutive fish that can cling to the keel and arrest its progress: so is it ever with the great passions of mankind; and we should paint life but ill if, even in times the most prodigal of romance, and of the romance of which we most largely avail ourselves, we did not also describe the mechanism of those trivial and household springs of mischief which we see every day at work in our chambers and at our hearths.
It is in these, the lesser intrigues of life, that we mostly find ourselves at home with the past. Most cunningly had the Egyptian appealed to Ione's ruling foible—most dexterously had he applied the poisoned dart to her pride. He fancied he had arrested what he hoped, from the shortness of the time she had known Glaucus, was, at most, but an incipient fancy; and hastening to change the subject, he now led her to talk of her brother. Their conversation did not last long. He left her, resolved not again to trust so much to absence, but to visit—to watch her—every day.
No sooner had his shadow glided from her presence, than woman's pride—her sex's dissimulation—deserted his intended victim, and the haughty Ione burst into passionate tears. In the interview with which he had just been blessed, he had for the first time gathered from her distinctly that his love was not unwelcome to, and would not be unrewarded by, her.
This hope filled him with a rapture for which earth and heaven seemed too narrow to afford a vent. Unconscious of the sudden enemy he had left behind, and forgetting not only his taunts but his very existence, Glaucus passed through the gay streets, repeating to himself, in the wantonness of joy, the music of the soft air to which Ione had listened with such intentness; and now he entered the Street of Fortune, with its raised footpath—its houses painted without, and the open doors admitting the view of the glowing frescoes within.
Each end of the street was adorned with a triumphal arch: and as Glaucus now came before the Temple of Fortune, the jutting portico of that beautiful fane which is supposed to have been built by one of the family of Cicero, perhaps by the orator himself imparted a dignified and venerable feature to a scene otherwise more brilliant than lofty in its character.
That temple was one of the most graceful specimens of Roman architecture. It was raised on a somewhat lofty podium; and between two flights of steps ascending to a platform stood the altar of the goddess. From this platform another flight of broad stairs led to the portico, from the height of whose fluted columns hung festoons of the richest flowers.
On either side the extremities of the temple were placed statues of Grecian workmanship; and at a little distance from the temple rose the triumphal arch crowned with an equestrian statue of Caligula, which was flanked by trophies of bronze.
In the space before the temple a lively throng were assembled—some seated on benches and discussing the politics of the empire, some conversing on the approaching spectacle of the amphitheatre.
One knot of young men were lauding a new beauty, another discussing the merits of the last play; a third group, more stricken in age, were speculating on the chance of the trade with Alexandria, and amidst these were many merchants in the Eastern costume, whose loose and peculiar robes, painted and gemmed slippers, and composed and serious countenances, formed a striking contrast to the tunicked forms and animated gestures of the Italians.
For that impatient and lively people had, as now, a language distinct from speech—a language of signs and motions, inexpressibly significant and vivacious: their descendants retain it, and the learned Jorio hath written a most entertaining work upon that species of hieroglyphical gesticulation. Sauntering through the crowd, Glaucus soon found himself amidst a group of his merry and dissipated friends.
I am very often tempted to make away with a very fat carptor butler whom I possess, and pop him slily into the reservoir. He would give the fish a most oleaginous flavor! But slaves are not slaves nowadays, and have no sympathy with their masters' interest—or Davus would destroy himself to oblige me! Be sure, that for every smile Titus has caused, a hundred eyes have wept. Thank Heaven I am not an aedile! Although the public thermae, or baths, were instituted rather for the poorer citizens than the wealthy for the last had baths in their own houses , yet, to the crowds of all ranks who resorted to them, it was a favorite place for conversation, and for that indolent lounging so dear to a gay and thoughtless people.
The baths at Pompeii differed, of course, in plan and construction from the vast and complicated thermae of Rome; and, indeed, it seems that in each city of the empire there was always some slight modification of arrangement in the general architecture of the public baths. This mightily puzzles the learned—as if architects and fashion were not capricious before the nineteenth century!
Our party entered by the principal porch in the Street of Fortune. At the wing of the portico sat the keeper of the baths, with his two boxes before him, one for the money he received, one for the tickets he dispensed. Round the walls of the portico were seats crowded with persons of all ranks; while others, as the regimen of the physicians prescribed, were walking briskly to and fro the portico, stopping every now and then to gaze on the innumerable notices of shows, games, sales, exhibitions, which were painted or inscribed upon the walls.
The general subject of conversation was, however, the spectacle announced in the amphitheatre; and each new-comer was fastened upon by a group eager to know if Pompeii had been so fortunate as to produce some monstrous criminal, some happy case of sacrilege or of murder, which would allow the aediles to provide a man for the jaws of the lion: all other more common exhibitions seemed dull and tame, when compared with the possibility of this fortunate occurrence.
I am told that they believe in a God—nay, in a future state. As Glaucus turned away, a sculptor, who was a great enthusiast in his art, looked after him admiringly. What limbs! A subject—a subject—worthy of our art! Why don't they give him to the lion? Meanwhile Fulvius, the Roman poet, whom his contemporaries declared immortal, and who, but for this history, would never have been heard of in our neglectful age, came eagerly up to Glaucus.
That is indeed an honour; you, a Greek—to whom the very language of common life is poetry. How I thank you. It is but a trifle; but if I secure your approbation, perhaps I may get an introduction to Titus. Oh, Glaucus! And what says Pythagoras? But they are only the inhabitants of a petty town—spero meliora! Shall we within? At this instant there was a rush of some twenty persons from the baths into the portico; and a slave stationed at the door of a small corridor now admitted the poet, Glaucus, Clodius, and a troop of the bard's other friends, into the passage.
They now entered a somewhat spacious chamber, which served for the purposes of the apodyterium that is, a place where the bathers prepared themselves for their luxurious ablutions.
The vaulted ceiling was raised from a cornice, glowingly colored with motley and grotesque paintings; the ceiling itself was paneled in white compartments bordered with rich crimson; the unsullied and shining floor was paved with white mosaics, and along the walls were ranged benches for the accommodation of the loiterers. This chamber did not possess the numerous and spacious windows which Vitruvius attributes to his more magnificent frigidarium.
The Pompeians, as all the southern Italians, were fond of banishing the light of their sultry skies, and combined in their voluptuous associations the idea of luxury with darkness. Two windows of glass alone admitted the soft and shaded ray; and the compartment in which one of these casements was placed was adorned with a large relief of the destruction of the Titans. In this apartment Fulvius seated himself with a magisterial air, and his audience gathering round him, encouraged him to commence his recital.
The poet did not require much pressing. He drew forth from his vest a roll of papyrus, and after hemming three times, as much to command silence as to clear his voice, he began that wonderful ode, of which, to the great mortification of the author of this history, no single verse can be discovered.
By the plaudits he received, it was doubtless worthy of his fame; and Glaucus was the only listener who did not find it excel the best odes of Horace. The poem concluded, those who took only the cold bath began to undress; they suspended their garments on hooks fastened in the wall, and receiving, according to their condition, either from their own slaves or those of the thermae, loose robes in exchange, withdrew into that graceful circular building which yet exists, to shame the unlaving posterity of the south.
The more luxurious departed by another door to the tepidarium, a place which was heated to a voluptuous warmth, partly by a movable fireplace, principally by a suspended pavement, beneath which was conducted the caloric of the laconicum. Here this portion of the intended bathers, after unrobing themselves, remained for some time enjoying the artificial warmth of the luxurious air. And this room, as befitted its important rank in the long process of ablution, was more richly and elaborately decorated than the rest; the arched roof was beautifully carved and painted; the windows above, of ground glass, admitted but wandering and uncertain rays; below the massive cornices were rows of figures in massive and bold relief; the walls glowed with crimson, the pavement was skillfully tessellated in white mosaics.
Here the habituated bathers, men who bathed seven times a day, would remain in a state of enervate and speechless lassitude, either before or mostly after the water-bath; and many of these victims of the pursuit of health turned their listless eyes on the newcomers, recognizing their friends with a nod, but dreading the fatigue of conversation.
From this place the party again diverged, according to their several fancies, some to the sudatorium, which answered the purpose of our vapor-baths, and thence to the warm-bath itself; those more accustomed to exercise, and capable of dispensing with so cheap a purchase of fatigue, resorted at once to the calidarium, or water-bath.
In order to complete this sketch, and give to the reader an adequate notion of this, the main luxury of the ancients, we will accompany Lepidus, who regularly underwent the whole process, save only the cold bath, which had gone lately out of fashion.
Being then gradually warmed in the tepidarium, which has just been described, the delicate steps of the Pompeian elegant were conducted to the sudatorium. Here let the reader depict to himself the gradual process of the vapor-bath, accompanied by an exhalation of spicy perfumes. After our bather had undergone this operation, he was seized by his slaves, who always awaited him at the baths, and the dews of heat were removed by a kind of scraper, which by the way a modern traveler has gravely declared to be used only to remove the dirt, not one particle of which could ever settle on the polished skin of the practised bather.
Thence, somewhat cooled, he passed into the water-bath, over which fresh perfumes were profusely scattered, and on emerging from the opposite part of the room, a cooling shower played over his head and form.
Then wrapping himself in a light robe, he returned once more to the tepidarium, where he found Glaucus, who had not encountered the sudatorium; and now, the main delight and extravagance of the bath commenced. Their slaves anointed the bathers from vials of gold, of alabaster, or of crystal, studded with profusest gems, and containing the rarest unguents gathered from all quarters of the world. The number of these smegmata used by the wealthy would fill a modern volume—especially if the volume were printed by a fashionable publisher; Amaracinum, Megalium, Nardum—omne quod exit in um—while soft music played in an adjacent chamber, and such as used the bath in moderation, refreshed and restored by the grateful ceremony, conversed with all the zest and freshness of rejuvenated life.
But a notion of the size only. Imagine every entertainment for mind and body—enumerate all the gymnastic games our fathers invented—repeat all the books Italy and Greece have produced—suppose places for all these games, admirers for all these works—add to this, baths of the vastest size, the most complicated construction—intersperse the whole with gardens, with theatres, with porticoes, with schools—suppose, in one word, a city of the gods, composed but of palaces and public edifices, and you may form some faint idea of the glories of the great baths of Rome.
They repair there the first hour in which the doors are opened, and remain till that in which the doors are closed. They seem as if they knew nothing of the rest of Rome, as if they despised all other existence. They take their exercise in the tennis-court or the porticoes, to prepare them for the first bath; they lounge into the theatre, to refresh themselves after it.
They take their prandium under the trees, and think over their second bath. By the time it is prepared, the prandium is digested. From the second bath they stroll into one of the peristyles, to hear some new poet recite: or into the library, to sleep over an old one.
Then comes the supper, which they still consider but a part of the bath: and then a third time they bathe again, as the best place to converse with their friends. The magnificent voluptuaries of the Roman baths are happy: they see nothing but gorgeousness and splendor; they visit not the squalid parts of the city; they know not that there is poverty in the world.
All Nature smiles for them, and her only frown is the last one which sends them to bathe in Cocytus. Believe me, they are your only true philosophers. While Glaucus was thus conversing, Lepidus, with closed eyes and scarce perceptible breath, was undergoing all the mystic operations, not one of which he ever suffered his attendants to omit.
After the perfumes and the unguents, they scattered over him the luxurious powder which prevented any further accession of heat: and this being rubbed away by the smooth surface of the pumice, he began to indue, not the garments he had put off, but those more festive ones termed 'the synthesis', with which the Romans marked their respect for the coming ceremony of supper, if rather, from its hour three o'clock in our measurement of time , it might not be more fitly denominated dinner.
This done, he at length opened his eyes and gave signs of returning life. Passing now once again into the cooler air, and so into the street, our gallants of that day concluded the ceremony of a Pompeian bath. THE evening darkened over the restless city as Apaecides took his way to the house of the Egyptian. He avoided the more lighted and populous streets; and as he strode onward with his head buried in his bosom, and his arms folded within his robe, there was something startling in the contrast, which his solemn mien and wasted form presented to the thoughtless brows and animated air of those who occasionally crossed his path.
At length, however, a man of a more sober and staid demeanor, and who had twice passed him with a curious but doubting look, touched him on the shoulder. Am I to believe with this man, that none whom for so many centuries my fathers worshipped have a being or a name? Am I to break down, as something blasphemous and profane, the very altars which I have deemed most sacred?
But the Nazarene was one of those hardy, vigorous, and enthusiastic men, by whom God in all times has worked the revolutions of earth, and those, above all, in the establishment and in the reformation of His own religion—men who were formed to convert, because formed to endure.
It is men of this mould whom nothing discourages, nothing dismays; in the fervor of belief they are inspired and they inspire. Their reason first kindles their passion, but the passion is the instrument they use; they force themselves into men's hearts, while they appear only to appeal to their judgment.
Nothing is so contagious as enthusiasm; it is the real allegory of the tale of Orpheus—it moves stones, it charms brutes. Enthusiasm is the genius of sincerity, and truth accomplishes no victories without it. Olinthus did not then suffer Apaecides thus easily to escape him. He overtook and addressed him thus:. I wonder not at this, but bear with me a little; watch and pray—the darkness shall vanish, the storm sleep, and God Himself, as He came of yore on the seas of Samaria, shall walk over the lulled billows, to the delivery of your soul.
Ours is a religion jealous in its demands, but how infinitely prodigal in its gifts! It troubles you for an hour, it repays you by immortality. Upon this seat was placed a round silver table, with various delicacies, of which they alone ate.
Along the middle of this were ranged twenty-one enormous dishes, each containing twenty-one baked sheep, three years old and fat, together with fowls, pigeons, and young chickens, in number of each kind, all of which were piled together in an oblong form to the height of the stature of a man, and enclosed with dry sweetmeat.
The spaces between these dishes were occupied by nearly five hundred other dishes of earthenware, each of which contained seven fowls, and was filled with sweetmeats of various kinds. The table was strewn with flowers, and cakes of bread made of the finest flour were arranged along each side; there were also two great edifices of sweetmeats, each weighing 17 cwt.
When the Khaleefeh and the Wezeer had taken their seats upon the couch, the officers of state, who were distinguished by neck-rings or collars, and the inferior members of the Court,  seated themselves in the order of their respective ranks; and when they had eaten, they gave place to others. Two officers distinguished themselves at these feasts in a very remarkable manner.
Each of them used to eat a baked sheep and ten fowls dressed with sweetmeats, and ten pounds of sweetmeats besides, and was presented with a quantity of food carried away from the feast to his house, together with a large sum of money.
This feat he accomplished and thus obtained his liberation. With respect to clean and unclean meats, the Muslim is subject to nearly the same laws as the Jew. Swine's flesh, and blood, are especially forbidden to him; but camel's flesh is allowed. The latter, however, being of a coarse nature, is never eaten when any other meat can be obtained, excepting by persons of the lower classes and by Arabs of the desert.
Of fish, almost every kind is eaten excepting shell-fish , usually fried in oil: of game, little; partly in consequence of frequent doubt whether it have been lawfully killed. The diet consists in a great measure of vegetables, and includes a large variety of pastry. A very  common kind of pastry is a pancake, which is made very thin, and folded over several times like a napkin; it is saturated with butter, and generally sweetened with honey or sugar; as is also another common kind which somewhat resembles vermicelli.
The usual beverage at meals is water, which is drunk from cooling, porous, earthen bottles, or from cups of brass or other metal: but in the houses of the wealthy, sherbet is sometimes served instead of this, in covered glass cups, each of which contains about three-quarters of a pint.
The sherbet is composed of water made very sweet with sugar, or with a hard conserve of violets or roses or mulberries. After every time that a person drinks, he says, "Praise be to God;" and each person of the company says to him, "May it be productive of enjoyment:" to which he replies, "May God cause thee to have enjoyment. The repast is quickly finished; and each person, as soon as he has done, says, "Praise be to God," or "Praise be to God, the Lord of all creatures.
If the stranger's business requires a protracted stay, as, for instance, if he wishes to cross the Desert under the protection of the tribe, the host, after a lapse of three days and four hours from the time of his arrival, asks whether he means to honour him any longer with his company. If the stranger declares his intention of prolonging his visit, it is expected that he should assist his host in domestic matters, fetching water, milking the camel, feeding the horse, etc.
Should he even decline this, he may remain; but he will be censured by all the Arabs of the camp: he may, however, go to some other tent of the nezel [or encampment], and declare himself there a guest.
Thus, every third or fourth day he may change hosts, until his business is finished, or he  has reached his place of destination. The obligation which is imposed by eating another person's bread and salt, or salt alone, or eating such things with another, is well known; but the following example of it may be new to some readers.
Thinking it might be a jewel of some sort or other, a diamond perhaps, he picked it up and put it to his tongue, and, to his equal mortification and disappointment, found it to be a lump of rock-salt; for having thus tasted the salt of the owner, his avarice gave way to his respect for the laws of hospitality; and throwing down his precious booty, he left it behind him, and withdrew empty-handed to his habitation.
The treasurer of Dirhem repairing the next day, according to custom, to inspect his charge, was equally surprised and alarmed at observing that a great part of the treasure and other valuables had been removed; but on examining the package which lay on the floor, his astonishment was  not less, to find that not a single article had been conveyed away. The singularity of the circumstance induced him to report it immediately to his master: and the latter causing it to be proclaimed throughout the city, that the author of this proceeding had his free pardon, further announced that on repairing to the palace, he would be distinguished by the most encouraging marks of favour.
In the houses of persons of the higher and middle classes in Cairo, the different apartments generally resemble each other in several respects and are similarly furnished.
The greater portion of the floor is elevated about half a foot, or somewhat more, above the rest. In a handsome house, it is usually paved with white and black marble and little pieces of red tile inlaid in tasteful and complicated patterns; and if the room is on the ground-floor, and sometimes in other cases, it has in the centre a fountain which plays into a small shallow pool lined with coloured marbles like the  surrounding pavement.
The mattress, which is commonly about three feet wide and three or four inches thick, is placed either on the floor or on a raised frame or a slightly elevated pavement; and the cushions, which are usually of a length equal to the width of the mattress and of a height equal to half that measure, lean against the wall.
Both mattresses and cushions are stuffed with cotton and are covered with printed calico, cloth, or some more expensive stuff. To a superior, and often to an equal, the master or mistress yields the chief place. The corners are often furnished with an additional mattress of a square form, just large enough for one person, placed upon the other mattress, and with two additional  but smaller cushions to recline against.
The walls are for the most part plastered and white-washed, and generally have two or more shallow cupboards, the doors of which, as well as those of the apartments, are fancifully constructed with small panels.
The windows, which are chiefly composed of curious wooden lattice-work, serving to screen the inhabitants from the view of persons without, as also to admit both light and air, commonly project outwards, and are furnished with mattresses and cushions. In many houses there are, above these, small windows of coloured glass, representing bunches of flowers, etc. The ceiling is of wood, and certain portions of it, which are carved or otherwise ornamented by fanciful carpentry, are usually painted with bright colours, such as red, green, and blue, and sometimes varied with gilding; but the greater part of the wood-work is generally left unpainted.
One of these is in most instances larger than the other, and is held to be the more honourable part. The prohibition of wine, or rather of fermented and intoxicating liquors, being one of the most remarkable and characteristic points of the Mohammadan religion, it might be imagined that the frequent stories in the "Thousand and One Nights," describing parties of Muslims as habitually indulging in the use of forbidden beverages, are scandalous misrepresentations of Arab manners and customs.
There are, however, many similar anecdotes interspersed in the works of Arab historians, which though many of them are probably untrue in their application to particular individuals could not have been offered to the public by such writers if they were not of a nature consistent with the customs of a considerable class of the Arab nation.
In investigating this subject, it is necessary in the first place to state that there is a kind of wine which Muslims are permitted to drink. It is properly called nebeedh a name which is now given to prohibited kinds of wine , and is generally prepared by putting dry grapes, or dry dates, in water, to extract their sweetness, and suffering the liquor to ferment slightly until it acquires a little sharpness or pungency.
The Prophet himself was in the habit of drinking wine of this kind, which was prepared for him in the first part  of the night; he drank it on the first and second days following; but if any remained on the morning of the third day, he either gave it to his servants or ordered it to be poured out upon the ground. Nebeedh prepared from raisins is commonly sold in Arab towns under the name of "zebeeb," which signifies "raisins. Other beverages, to which the name of "nebeedh" has been applied though, like zebeeb, no longer called by that name , are also sold in Arab towns.
The nebeedh of dates is sold in Cairo with the dates themselves in the liquor; and in like manner is that of figs. Under the same appellation of nebeedh have been classed the different kinds of beer now commonly called boozeh.
Opium, hemp, etc. The young leaves of the hemp are generally used alone, or mixed with tobacco, for smoking; and the capsules, without the seeds, enter into the composition of several intoxicating conserves. By my own experience I am but little qualified to pronounce an opinion respecting the prevalence of drinking wine among the Arabs; for, never drinking it myself, I had little opportunity of observing others do so during my residence among Muslims.
I judge, therefore, from the conversations and writings of Arabs, which justify me in asserting that the practice of drinking wine in private and by select parties is far from being uncommon among modern Muslims, though certainly more so than it was before the introduction of tobacco into the East, in the beginning of the seventeenth century of our era: for this herb, being in a slight degree exhilarating, and at the same time soothing, and unattended by the injurious effects that result from wine, is a sufficient luxury to many who, without it, would have recourse to intoxicating beverages merely to pass away hours of idleness.
The use of coffee, too, which became common in Egypt, Syria, and other countries besides Arabia, a century earlier than tobacco, doubtless tended to render the habit of drinking wine less general.
Of this work I possess a copy, a quarto volume of pages. I have endeavoured to skim its cream; but found it impossible to do so without collecting at the same time a considerable quantity of most filthy scum; for it is characterised by wit and humour plentifully interlarded with the grossest and most revolting obscenity. Yet it serves to confirm what has been above asserted.
Its author terminates a chapter the ninth , in which many well-known persons are mentioned as having been addicted to wine, by saying, that the Khaleefehs, Emeers, and Wezeers, so addicted, are too numerous to name in such a work; and by relating a story of a man who placed his own wife in pledge in the hands of a wine-merchant, after having expended in the purchase of the forbidden liquor all the property that he possessed.
He excuses himself in his preface for writing this book, by saying that he had been ordered to do so by one whom he could not disobey; thus giving us a pretty strong proof that a great man in his own time was not ashamed of avowing his fondness for the prohibited enjoyment. If then we admit the respectable authority of Ibn-Khaldoon, and acquit of the vice of drunkenness those illustrious individuals whose characters he vindicates, we must still regard most of the anecdotes relating to the carousals of other persons as being not without foundation.
I disturbed him and his companions by an evening visit on one of these occasions, and was kept waiting within the street door while the guests quickly removed everything that would give me any indication of the manner in which they had been employed; for the announcement of my assumed name,  and their knowledge of my abstemious character, completely disconcerted them.
I found them, however, in the best humour. The evening passed away very pleasantly, and I should not have known how unwelcome was my intrusion had not one of the guests with whom I was intimately acquainted, in walking part of the way home with me, explained to me the whole occurrence. There was with us a third person, who, thinking that my antipathy to wine was feigned, asked me to stop at his house on my  way and take a cup of "white coffee," by which he meant brandy.
Another of my Muslim acquaintances in Cairo I frequently met at the house of a common friend, where, though he was in most respects very bigoted, he was in the habit of indulging in wine. For some time he refrained from this gratification when I was by; but at length my presence became so irksome to him that he ventured to enter into an argument with me on the subject of the prohibition. The only answer I could give to his question, "Why is wine forbidden?
Boy, bring me a glass. The prohibition of wine hindered many of the Prophet's contemporaries from embracing his religion. Yet many of the most respectable of the pagan Arabs, like certain of the Jews and early Christians, abstained totally from wine, from a feeling of its injurious effects upon morals, and, in their climate, upon health; or more especially from the fear of being led by it into the commission of foolish and degrading actions.
The slave replied, "O Prince of the Faithful, I am not related to thee, nor have I any authority over thee, and I am of no rank or lineage; I am a black slave, and my wit and politeness have drawn me into thy favour: how then shall I take that which will plunder me of these two qualities, and by what  shall I then propitiate thee?
It was the custom of many Muslim princes, as might be inferred from the above anecdote, to admit the meanest of their dependants to participate in their unlawful carousals when they could have no better companions; but poets and musicians were their more common associates on these occasions; and these two classes, and especially the latter, are in the present day the most addicted to intoxicating liquors.
Few modern Arab musicians are so well contented with extraordinary payment and mere sweet sherbet as with a moderate fee and plenty of wine and brandy; and many of them deem even wine but a sorry beverage.
It was usual with the host and guests at wine-parties to wear dresses of bright colours, red, yellow, and green;  and to perfume their beards and mustaches with civet, or to have rose-water sprinkled upon them; and ambergris or aloes-wood, or some other odoriferous substance, placed upon burning coals in a censer, diffused a delicious fragrance throughout the saloon of the revels.
The wine, it appears, was rather thick, for it was necessary to strain it:  it was probably sweet, and not strong, for it was drunk in  large quantities. In general, perhaps, it was nebeedh of dry raisins kept longer than the law allows. It was usually kept in a large earthen vessel, called denn, high, and small at the bottom, which was partly imbedded in the earth to keep it upright. The name of this vessel is now given to a cask of wood; but the kind above mentioned was of earth, for it was easily broken.
Pitch was used by the Arabs, as it was by the Greeks and Romans, for the purpose of curing their wine; the interior of the denn being coated with it. These and the cups were placed upon a round embroidered  cloth spread on the floor, or upon a round tray.
The latter is now in general use, and is supported on the low stool already described as being used at ordinary meals. The cups are often described as holding a fluid pound, or little less than an English pint, and this is to be understood literally, or nearly so: they were commonly of cut glass, but some were of crystal or silver or gold. The most common and esteemed fruits in the countries inhabited by the Arabs may here be mentioned.
There are many varieties of this fruit. The Prophet pronounced the banana-tree to be the only thing on earth that resembles a thing in Paradise, because it bears fruit both in winter and summer. Every pomegranate, according to the Prophet, contains a fecundating seed from Paradise. The other most common and esteemed fruits are the following;—the apple, pear, quince, apricot, peach, fig, sycamore-fig, grape, lote, jujube, plum, walnut, almond, hazel-nut, pistachio-nut, orange, Seville orange, lime, lemon, citron, mulberry, olive, and sugar-cane.
Of a selection of these fruits consists the dessert which accompanies the wine; but the table is not complete without a bunch or two of flowers placed in the midst. Though the Arabs are far from being remarkable for exhibiting taste in the planning of their gardens, they are passionately fond of flowers, and especially of the rose ward.
He was constantly employed at his loom every day of the year, even during the congregational-prayers of Friday, excepting in the rose-season, when he abandoned his work and gave himself up to the enjoyment of wine early in the morning and late in the evening, loudly proclaiming his revels by singing,—.
The Khaleefeh was so amused with the humour of this man that he granted him an annual pension of ten thousand dirhems to enable him to enjoy himself amply on these occasions. Another anecdote may be added to show  the estimation of the rose in the mind of an Arab.
He ordered the eunuch to fill the jar with silver in return; but his slave said, "O my lord, thou hast not acted equitably towards the man; for his present to thee is of two colours, red and white. Some persons preserve roses during the whole of the year in the following manner.
They take a number of rose-buds and fill with them a new earthen jar, and, after closing its mouth with mud so as to render it impervious to the air, bury it in the earth. Whenever they want a few roses, they take out some of these buds, which they find unaltered, sprinkle a little water upon them and leave them for a short time in the air, when they open and appear as if just gathered. The rose is even a subject of miracles.
The people of that place worshipped stones, and knew not God, to whom be ascribed might and glory. But there is a flower pronounced more excellent than the rose, that of the Egyptian privet, or Lawsonia inermis. But, on account of discrepancies in different traditions, a Muslim may with a clear conscience prefer either of the two flowers next mentioned.
Another flower much admired and celebrated in the East is the gilliflower menthoor or kheeree. There are three principal kinds; the most esteemed is the yellow, or gold-coloured, which has a delicious scent both by night and day; the next, the purple, and other dark kinds, which have a scent only in the night; the least esteemed, the white, which has no scent. The yellow gilliflower is an emblem of a neglected lover.
He groaned and rolled over, burying his face in the bedclothes. Loki groaned again and flailed his arm, trying to get the offending pest to leave him to die in peace, but Valgerd was a more stubborn burn than he had anticipated. He sat up, shivering and squinting. The chambermaids are only now searching for the trunk which holds your dowry. Loki nodded. Valgerd considered. I think a bath would do you right up.
His face felt greasy, and his hair was surely a hideous mess. Valgerd drew him over, well accustomed to the morning after fumblings of royalty. It's a wonder, to be sure; they've got pools of water, and no need to melt it beforehand.
The wood-panelled walls smelled faintly of cedar and pine, and mingled with the light perfumes of the soaps set out for his use. He drifted for a time, letting the last of the alcohol sweat from his body. He followed the steam bath with a dip in the cold pool, both closing his pores and waking himself thoroughly.
He rose from the water refreshed. Valgerd bowed. He will help me today. Is that acceptable? He was small, smaller than Loki, and his face, while not homely, was nevertheless unprepossessing. But his face was clever, and his eyes gentle. Yes, Loki thought he might like this one. He nodded to Valgerd, who gestured Hevring forward. Hevring helped in small ways, holding out tools and taking sections of hair when Valgerd needed.
Loki wondered for a moment how his mother was making do without his personal valet. But watching Valgerd section and braid his hair, with the artistry it required, chased away his guilt. Valgerd was a master, and Loki would have no other for his wedding day.
All the same, he was fidgeting long before Valgerd was half through. Hevring took advantage of his enforced idleness to paint his finger- and toenails, lacquering them a deep, almost black shade of blue.
Then it was time for the threaders, who came to thread his body of every last hair, short his brows and eyelashes. That was a trying experience for everyone, especially Valgerd, who forgot himself more than once as Loki twitched, and cursed like the sailors of his family.
All told, by the time Valgerd had neared the end of his task, the sun was nearing midday and Loki was thoroughly prepared to abandon the effort and attend the ceremony with his hair half-braided. Loki sighed, and shifted his weight from one foot to the other. As soon as Valgerd released him, Loki promptly rolled his head, stretching the stiff muscles from their forced position.
His hair moved with him, heavy enough for him to feel the shifting braids. Then it was time to dress, and Loki lost himself for a time in the glorious textures and patterns. He had seen them all being made, of course; had watched the weavers milking the captured spiders of their silk, and the delicate spindles that collected their bounty.
He had seen the looms onto which the silk was framed and woven, and the embroiderers, acknowledged masters of their art, stitch endless, complicated patterns into the fabric at breakneck pace. Loki had seen it all, and yet, when he wrapped the kilt, shining gold in the sunlight, about his waist, it was as though he saw it afresh for the first time.
First came the torc, a symbol of his impending familial independence, the finials wrought into the heads of dragons bearing flawless pearls in their mouths.
Then came the bulk of it: the armbands, the necklaces, the rings, and the finely-wrought chains, all interspersed with gemstones at studied intervals to create pleasing patterns. Cuffs framed his upper arms; serpentine coils crept up his forearms. His earlobes and pinnae were weighed down with rings and bangles, and his nipples and cock, still newly-pierced enough to be over-sensitive, bore rings as well.
A circlet was woven through the thick weight of his hair, and poor Valgerd, damned with his care, was once again pressed into service to afix the hammered gold sheaths to his horns without damage to his coif. His every move jangled with the soft chime of gold on gold.
He finished his accessories with four daggers: two at his belt on the left side and one on his right, and the final one tucked into his boot. Over all he wore the white bear skin, so expertly skinned and tanned that its head might be used as a hood. He went to the mirror once the ensemble was complete, curious to see how he looked. His breath caught. His heart fluttered in his chest, suddenly cognizant that this was his wedding day, and that beyond this point, nothing would be the same.
He found himself trembling beneath the weight of his finery. A knock on his door cut through the furor, and Laufey stepped in. He surveyed the room and its occupants, and saw that Loki was ready. Laufey took a moment to examine him. Loki stood straighter beneath his demanding gaze. Loki bowed reflexively, words utterly beyond his grasp. He stared at the floor. As though he, too, were affected by the gravity of the moment, Laufey wordlessly pulled something from his wrist and held it out.
Loki looked up, curious; it was a bracelet, hammered of gold. He looked up at Laufey. It was his favorite piece, I think. He would have wanted you to have it, for your own dowry. In face, and in manner. This must be my goodbye. He curled his fingers around the bracelet. It was too big for his wrist, but perhaps he could wear it as an armband. He began the laborious process of removing the jewelry from his right arm.
Laufey watched, and Loki found himself wishing he would leave. He slipped it up over his wrist and elbow, and settled it into place over his bicep. It fit well, he decided, flexing his arm. He slowly replaced all he had removed, his heart twisting in sudden knots. He looked up to his mother. They looked at each other in a moment of perfect harmony, and Loki felt that perhaps his mother was genuinely saddened by his departure.
Never once did Laufey seem to falter, and Loki turned to ask him how, despite the absence of a guiding servant, he seemed to know exactly where to go. Laufey, incredibly, smiled, and it was free from sourness or malicious intent. The attempt was unsuccessful, but I still recall the layouts from that mission. Loki nodded in understanding. Strangely, his view of his mother shifted with the revelation. Perhaps it was best that such reconciliation occur now, before there was time to ruin the moment with renewed familiarity.
An Asgardian servant spotted them, and hurried to their side. The paths in this wood were narrow but deeply worn. Oak and spruce predominated, with a smattering of pine and birch. The air was fragrant with the scents of rot and growing wood, and patches of blackberries arose where the thicket grew dense enough to force out trees for sunshine. Small birds chirped to each other warnings of intruders, and squirrels chittered spitefully from their roosts. Loki felt the touch of the primeval here, and made a note of it, should he need to retreat from the Asgardian court.
The arboreal peace was disturbed by an alien edifice heaving its way up from the moss-strewn forest floor. The trees were allowed to encroach right up to its walls, and ivy grew in profusion up its sides, almost entirely obscuring it from view; nonetheless, as they drew closer Loki caught the impression of simple, undressed stone capped by a humble dome.
He saw little more than that, for their guide drew them to the side, where a group of outbuildings sat clustered about a tremendous guardian oak. They waited as instructed, and Loki pulled away from his mother to stand beneath the oak. He raised a hand to catch the leaves that were falling. They had turned brown and withered. Was the tree sick? He gazed through the rest of the forest; other trees were shedding their leaves as well, some turning magnificent reds and golds in the process.
Perhaps it was normal, for this Realm. He caught a leaf that fluttered by. It was thin as parchment, and delicate as spun sugar. It seemed all aspects of Asgard came together to produce the most fragile, wasteful, rich realm possible. Loki crushed the leaf in his fist, sprinkling the fragments like snow. Three bells sounded then, and he climbed over the spreading roots to where Laufey stood waiting. They knew this part of the ceremony, for they had studied their roles; and though it was held in a foreign land, enough of it was similar to their native rites to be familiar.
Each step Loki took chimed with the clatter of gold against gold. It seemed to him the soft laughter of the Norns as they laid his fate before him. Ahead, the domed building rose, draped with greenery, and a pair of apple trees, dwarfed by its deceptive bulk, framed the portal through which Loki and Laufey would enter.
Golden fruit hung heavy from their bows. They stepped through into the shadows beyond. Inside was a hof, bare but for the countless statues lining the walls. An oculus sat high above, pouring light down onto a small spring.
The ground around the spring had not been paved, and the water bubbling up flowed unencumbered by stone or mortar through the southeastern wall of the temple. That small grate, the oculus, and portal through which Loki had entered, were the only openings in the entirety of the structure.
The people quieted, pulling back to form an aisle to the center of the temple; Laufey began to walk, and Loki clung to his side, suddenly finding himself near-paralyzed with nerves. He walked, he jingled, and ahead he saw Odin and Thor waiting beside the pool. Odin stood full in the light of the oculus, and Thor beside him; Laufey paused, his place determined, and Loki walked on, into the pool of light. His view of the onlookers faded. It was as though he were in a separate room, with only the Allfather and his intended for company.
His golden hair was pulled back from his face to cascade over his shoulders. He was many things, but at least, Loki thought, he was handsome. Odin spoke. I declare the prices paid and the union sound; is there any here with evidence this is not so? Stark silence answered his query. Ancestors of our peoples, I call upon you here to witness this binding.
Lend your wisdom to these two before you, and give them your blessing, that it may be a fruitful marriage. Your flesh will form the bridal feast, and hallow the marriage with the promise of rejuvenation. With your death, give life, and may the Ancestors take you to their bosom. Odin exchanged the knife for the bowl and held it beneath the wound, collecting her blood as she crumpled. It was a quick, clean death, and she died without a whimper. Loki felt his heart go to her, and a great sense of humility came over him, that his marriage should depend on her death.
When her heart no longer pumped Odin stroked her still shoulder, then rose, lifting the hlautbowl high. He saw Thor flinch as blood struck close to his eye. Then Odin turned to the unseen congregation, and flicked the pine branch in all directions, asperging them as he had the bride and groom. Then the Allfather, handing the bloody branch back to the attendant, raised the bowl and poured it into the bare, mossy earth beside the pool.
A gift for a gift. The kitchens were waiting, and she would soon grace the table of the wedding feast. Odin turned back to the bride and groom, and bid them rise. It bore a heavy gold ring tied to the hilt. He held it toward Thor. With this ring I pledge my troth. Thor took the weapon solemnly, and tied it to his own belt. He submitted to Loki placing the ring on his finger. Thor nodded and removed the broadsword he bore.
Loki mentally shrugged. Perhaps for a woman it was unusual, but Loki was not a woman. There was, too, a moment of confusion when Thor moved to slip the ring on his finger, and found no finger free from rings upon which to slip it.
Loki raised a brow, half daring him, and Thor seemed to shrug before snugging the ring up against the others. He raised it between them. Do you agree to these terms? Do you agree not to stray, and to provide for him a haven should he desire your company? You are wedded in the sight of the Ancestors and your peers. In answer, Thor took back the hammer and raised it overhead, as though in triumph.
Behind them the wedding guests followed, laughing and singing. The broadsword was clumsy with his stride, hanging at an awkward height and knocking into his bearskin cloak. Loki rested his hand on the pommel as they walked, to still its wayward swaying. Loki longed to release it to wipe off his own hand. They made their way through the sacred wood back to the palace. It was a bright, Asgardian day, and Loki squinted against the sunlight.
His earlobes and nipples were beginning to ache from the weight of the jewelry strung from them, and his hair itched furiously beneath the braids. All told he was willing to forgo the wedding feast in favor of casting off his finery, but his duty was not yet dispensed with. Thor led them through the formal gardens, then through the polished halls of Gladsheim, until finally they came to the banqueting hall. Loki could see servants bustling about inside, putting down the finishing touches to the tableware in anticipation of their arrival.
He stood, confused, before he remembered the ritual drama. Behind them, the wedding guests had spread out, to watch the scene unfold. Loki restrained his more irreverent impulses, and kept to the script. Loki took it, and Thor led him over the threshold of the hall. Another spate of cheers arose once this was done, and Loki rolled his eyes at the insanity of Asgardians. Loki followed him forward into the center of the hall. They stopped there, over the middle of the massive frith-knot pattern inlaid in the floor.
All around them, the wedding guests filled the benches and tables, and before them at the high table, Odin, Frigga, their two younger sons and their caretaker, as well as Laufey, his trusted lieutenant and the Warriors Four, all took their seats. A servant came forward, bearing a loving-cup of mead. This, then, was the Bridal Ale. Necrochrist's first choice was the Greek cult record label Molon Lave Records. Molon Lave asked to record another song in way to release a 7"ep.
At March of , Necrochrist entered into the "Storm" studio again. Our Gangs Dark Oath. Diamond Earrings. Take This Oath. For Mine feat. Bread Doe. Death B4 Dishonor [Official Audio]. Now, Vol.CD version Status: Available Genre: Black Metal Country: Greece Tracklist 1) Ceremonial Whisper of the Ancient Goat 2) Visions Through My Infernal Dreams 3) Animus et Corpus 4) Silent Pagan Nights 5) Lady of Evil Sorcery 6) Black Metal Cult 7) Zoi En Tafo 8) Necromancy 9) Deathwish 10) Moonlight in My Eyes 11) Cremation (King Diamond cover)