The movie Man of Steel portrays the Fortress as a Kryptonian exploratory craft buried deep beneath rock and ice. Although his name and history were taken from his early life with his adoptive Earth parents, everything about Clark was staged for the benefit of his alternate identity: as a reporter for the Daily Planet , he receives late-breaking news before the general public, has a plausible reason to be present at crime scenes, and need not strictly account for his whereabouts as long as he makes his story deadlines.
He sees his job as a journalist as an extension of his Superman responsibilities—bringing truth to the forefront and fighting for the little guy. He believes that everybody has the right to know what is going on in the world, regardless of who is involved. To deflect suspicion that he is Superman, Clark Kent adopted a largely passive and introverted personality with conservative mannerisms, a higher-pitched voice, and a slight slouch.
This personality is typically described as "mild-mannered", perhaps most famously by the opening narration of Max Fleischer 's Superman animated theatrical shorts. These traits extended into Clark's wardrobe, which typically consists of a bland-colored business suit, a red necktie, black-rimmed glasses, combed-back hair, and occasionally a fedora.
Clark wears his Superman costume underneath his street clothes, allowing easy changes between the two personae and the dramatic gesture of ripping open his shirt to reveal the familiar "S" emblem when called into action. Superman usually stores his Clark Kent clothing compressed in a secret pouch within his cape,  though some stories have shown him leaving his clothes in some covert location such as the Daily Planet storeroom  for later retrieval.
As Superman's alter ego , the personality, concept, and name of Clark Kent have become ingrained in popular culture as well, becoming synonymous with secret identities and innocuous fronts for ulterior motives and activities. In , Superman co-creator Joe Shuster told the Toronto Star that the name derived from s cinematic leading men Clark Gable and Kent Taylor , but the persona from bespectacled silent film comic Harold Lloyd and himself. Clark's middle name is given variously as either Joseph, Jerome, or Jonathan, all being allusions to creators Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster.
In the original Siegel and Shuster stories, Superman's personality is rough and aggressive. He often uses excessive force and terror against criminals, on some occasions even killing them. This came to an end in late when new editor Whitney Ellsworth instituted a code of conduct for his characters to follow, banning Superman from ever killing. Ellsworth's code, however, is not to be confused with " the Comics Code ", which was created in by the Comics Code Authority and ultimately abandoned by every major comic book publisher by the early 21st century.
In his first appearances, Superman was considered a vigilante by the authorities, being fired upon by the National Guard as he razed a slum so that the government would create better housing conditions for the poor.
By , however, Superman was working side-by-side with the police. He adheres to an unwavering moral code instilled in him by his adoptive parents. Superman can be rather rigid in this trait, causing tensions in the superhero community. Having lost his home world of Krypton, Superman is very protective of Earth,  and especially of Clark Kent's family and friends. This same loss, combined with the pressure of using his powers responsibly, has caused Superman to feel lonely on Earth, despite having his friends and parents.
Previous encounters with people he thought to be fellow Kryptonians, Power Girl  who is, in fact from the Krypton of the Earth-Two universe and Mon-El ,  have led to disappointment.
The arrival of Supergirl , who has been confirmed to be not only from Krypton, but also his cousin, has relieved this loneliness somewhat.
In many ways, Clark is the most human of us all. And how fortunate we all are that it does not occur to him. The catalog of Superman's abilities and his strength has varied considerably over the vast body of Superman fiction released since Since Action Comics 1 , Superman has superhuman strength.
The cover of Action Comics 1 shows him effortlessly lifting a car over his head. Another classic feat of strength on Superman's part is breaking steel chains. In some stories, he is strong enough to shift the orbits of planets  and crush coal into diamond with his hands.
Since Action Comics 1 , Superman has a highly durable body, invulnerable for most practical purposes. At the very least, bullets bounce harmlessly off his body.
In some stories, such as Kingdom Come , not even a nuclear bomb can harm him. In some stories, Superman is said to project an aura that renders invulnerable any tight-fitting clothes he wears, and hence his costume is as durable as he is despite being made of common human-fractured cloth.
This concept was first introduced in Man of Steel 1 In other stories, Superman's costume is made out of exotic materials that are as tough as he is. In Action Comics 1, Superman could not fly.
He traveled by running and leaping, which he could do to a prodigious degree thanks to his strength. Superman gained the ability to fly in the second episode of the radio serial in He can break the sound barrier, and in some stories, he can even fly faster than light to travel to distant galaxies.
Superman can project and perceive X-rays via his eyes, which allows him to see through objects. He first uses this power in Action Comics 11 Certain materials such as lead can block his X-ray vision. Superman can project beams of heat from his eyes which are hot enough to melt steel. He first used this power in Superman 59 by applying his X-ray vision at its highest intensity. In later stories, this ability is simply called "heat vision".
Superman can hear sounds that are too faint for a human to hear, and at frequencies outside the human hearing range. This ability was introduced in Action Comics 11 Since Action Comics 20 , Superman possesses superhuman breath, which enables him to inhale or blow huge amounts of air, as well as holding his breath indefinitely to remain underwater or space without adverse effects. He has a significant focus of his breath's intensity to the point of freezing targets by blowing on them.
The "freezing breath" was first demonstrated in Superman Action Comics 1 explained that Superman's strength was common to all Kryptonians because they were a species "millions of years advanced of our own". In the first newspaper strips, Jor-El is shown running and leaping like Superman, and his wife survives a building collapsing on her. Later stories explained they evolved superhuman strength simply because of Krypton's higher gravity. Superman established that Superman's abilities other than strength flight, durability, etc.
In Action Comics , all of his powers including strength are activated by yellow sunlight and can be deactivated by red sunlight similar to that of Krypton's sun. Exposure to green kryptonite radiation nullifies Superman's powers and incapacitates him with pain and nausea; prolonged exposure will eventually kill him.
Although green kryptonite is the most commonly seen form, writers have introduced other forms over the years: such as red, gold, blue, white, and black, each with its own effect. Kryptonite first appeared in a episode of the radio serial.
Superman is also vulnerable to magic. Enchanted weapons and magical spells affect Superman as easily as they would a normal human. This weakness was established in Superman Superman's first and most famous supporting character is Lois Lane , introduced in Action Comics 1. She is a fellow journalist at the Daily Planet. As Jerry Siegel conceived her, Lois considers Clark Kent to be a wimp, but she is infatuated with the bold and mighty Superman, not knowing that Kent and Superman are the same person.
Siegel objected to any proposal that Lois discover that Clark is Superman because he felt that, as implausible as Clark's disguise is, the love triangle was too important to the book's appeal. This was the first story in which Superman and Lois marry that wasn't an "imaginary tale. Other supporting characters include Jimmy Olsen , a photographer at the Daily Planet , who is friends with both Superman and Clark Kent, though in most stories he doesn't know that Clark is Superman.
Jimmy is frequently described as "Superman's pal", and was conceived to give young male readers a relatable character through which they could fantasize being friends with Superman. Clark Kent's foster parents are Ma and Pa Kent. In many stories, one or both of them have died by the time Clark becomes Superman. Clark's parents taught him that he should use his abilities for altruistic means, but that he should also find some way to safeguard his private life.
The villains Superman faced in the earliest stories were ordinary humans, such as gangsters, corrupt politicians, and violent husbands; but they soon grew more colorful and outlandish so as to avoid offending censors or scaring children. Superman's best-known nemesis, Lex Luthor , was introduced in Action Comics 23 April and has been depicted as either a mad scientist or a wealthy businessman sometimes both.
The details Superman's story and supporting cast vary across his large body of fiction released since , but most versions conform to the basic template described above. A few stories feature radically altered versions of Superman. DC Comics has on some occasions published crossover stories where different versions of Superman interact with each other using the plot device of parallel universes.
For instance, in the s, the Superman of "Earth-One" would occasionally feature in stories alongside the Superman of "Earth-Two", the latter of whom resembled Superman as he was portrayed in the s.
DC Comics has not developed a consistent and universal system to classify all versions of Superman. Superman is often thought of as the first superhero.
This point is debated by historians: Ogon Bat , the Phantom , Zorro , and Mandrake the Magician arguably fit the definition of the superhero yet predate Superman. Nevertheless, Superman popularized the archetype and established its conventions: a costume, a codename, extraordinary abilities, and an altruistic mission. This flourishing is today referred to as America's Golden Age of Comic Books , which lasted from to about The Golden Age ended when American superhero book sales declined, leading to the cancellation of many characters; but Superman was one of the few superhero franchises that survived this decline, and his sustained popularity into the late s helped the second flourishing in the Silver Age of Comic Books , when characters such as Spider-Man , Iron Man , and The X-Men were created.
After World War 2, American superhero fiction entered Japanese culture. Astro Boy , first published in , was inspired by Mighty Mouse , which itself was a parody of Superman. These shows were popular with the Japanese and inspired Japan's own prolific genre of superheroes. The first Japanese superhero movie, Super Giant , was released in Starting with the Pop Art period and on a continuing basis, since the s the character of Superman has been "appropriated" by multiple visual artists and incorporated into contemporary artwork,   most notably by Andy Warhol   , Roy Lichtenstein  , Mel Ramos  , Dulce Pinzon  , Mr.
Lennox Campello  , and others. Superman is the prototypical superhero and consequently the most frequently parodied. In , Bugs Bunny was featured in a short, Super-Rabbit , which sees the character gaining powers through eating fortified carrots.
This short ends with Bugs stepping into a phone booth to change into a real "Superman" and emerging as a U. In Daffy Duck assumes the mantle of "Cluck Trent" in the short Stupor Duck , a role later reprised in various issues of the Looney Tunes comic book. The manga and anime series Dr. Slump featured the character Suppaman ; a short, fat, pompous man who changes into a thinly veiled Superman-like alter-ego by eating a sour-tasting umeboshi. Jerry Seinfeld , a noted Superman fan, filled his series Seinfeld with references to the character and in asked for Superman to co-star with him in a commercial for American Express.
Seagle's graphic novel Superman: It's a Bird exploring Seagle's feelings on his own mortality as he struggles to develop a story for a Superman tale. Superman was depicted as emaciated and breathing from an oxygen tank, demonstrating that no-one is beyond the reach of the disease, and it can destroy the lives of everyone. Superman has also featured as an inspiration for musicians, with songs by numerous artists from several generations celebrating the character.
Donovan 's Billboard Hot topping single " Sunshine Superman " utilized the character in both the title and the lyric, declaring "Superman and Green Lantern ain't got nothing on me.
This cover is referenced by Grant Morrison in Animal Man , in which Superman meets the character, and the track comes on Animal Man 's Walkman immediately after. Superman has been interpreted and discussed in many forms in the years since his debut, with Umberto Eco noting that "he can be seen as the representative of all his similars". He regarded Superman's character in the early seventies as a comment on the modern world, which he saw as a place in which "only the man with superpowers can survive and prosper.
Grayling, writing in The Spectator , traces Superman's stances through the decades, from his s campaign against crime being relevant to a nation under the influence of Al Capone , through the s and World War II, a period in which Superman helped sell war bonds ,  and into the s, where Superman explored the new technological threats.
Bush and the terrorist Osama bin Laden , America is in earnest need of a Saviour for everything from the minor inconveniences to the major horrors of world catastrophe. And here he is, the down-home clean-cut boy in the blue tights and red cape". An influence on early Superman stories is the context of the Great Depression.
Superman took on the role of social activist, fighting crooked businessmen and politicians and demolishing run-down tenements. Scott Bukatman has discussed Superman, and the superhero in general, noting the ways in which they humanize large urban areas through their use of the space, especially in Superman's ability to soar over the large skyscrapers of Metropolis. He writes that the character "represented, in , a kind of Corbusierian ideal. Superman has X-ray vision: walls become permeable, transparent.
Through his benign, controlled authority, Superman renders the city open, modernist and democratic; he furthers a sense that Le Corbusier described in , namely, that 'Everything is known to us'.
Jules Feiffer has argued that Superman's real innovation lay in the creation of the Clark Kent persona, noting that what "made Superman extraordinary was his point of origin: Clark Kent. Joe and I had certain inhibitions That's where the dual-identity concept came from" and Shuster supporting that as being "why so many people could relate to it".
Ian Gordon suggests that the many incarnations of Superman across media use nostalgia to link the character to an ideology of the American Way. He defines this ideology as a means of associating individualism, consumerism, and democracy and as something that took shape around WWII and underpinned the war effort.
Superman, he notes was very much part of that effort. Superman is considered the prototypical superhero. He established the major conventions of the archetype: a selfless, prosocial mission; extraordinary, perhaps superhuman, abilities; a secret identity and codename; and a colorful costume that expresses his nature.
Superman's immigrant status is a key aspect of his appeal. The extraterrestrial origin was seen by Regalado as challenging the notion that Anglo-Saxon ancestry was the source of all might.
Through the use of a dual identity, Superman allowed immigrants to identify with both of their cultures. Clark Kent represents the assimilated individual, allowing Superman to express the immigrants' cultural heritage for the greater good. He argues that Superman's early stories portray a threat: "the possibility that the exile would overwhelm the country. Some see Judaic themes in Superman. For example, Moses as a baby was sent away by his parents in a reed basket to escape death and adopted by a foreign culture.
Gabriel , Ariel , who are airborne humanoid agents of good with superhuman powers. All that said, historians such as Martin Lund and Les Daniels argue that the evidence for Judaic influence is circumstantial. Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster were not practicing Jews and never acknowledged the influence of Judaism in any memoir or interview. Superman stories have occasionally exhibited Christian themes as well.
Screenwriter Tom Mankiewicz consciously made Superman an allegory for Christ in the movie starring Christopher Reeve : baby Kal-El's ship resembles the Star of Bethlehem , and Jor-El gives his son a messianic mission to lead humanity into a brighter future.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the superhero. For other uses, see Superman disambiguation. Fictional superhero. Superman in Superman: Secret Origin 6 October Art by Gary Frank and Jon Sibal.
Superman Earth 43 Blood League. Superdoom Earth 45 The Curse of Superman. Sunshine Superman Earth 47 Love Syndicate. Superman Earth -1 The Devastator. Superman Earth The Merciless. Superman Earth The Murder Machine. Rant Dark Multiverse The Unseen. Kentclark Dark Multiverse The Unseen. Ultraman Earth-3 Crime Society. Quantum Superman Earth-4 Allen Adam. Captain Marvel Earth-5 Analouge. Herr Superman Earth-8 Monarch's Army. Harvey Dent Earth-9 Tangent Comics.
Superman Earth JLAxis. Overman Earth Superman Beyond. Superwoman Earth Reverse Gender. Zod Earth Countdown to Final Crisis. Chris Kent Earth Countdown: Arena.
Kal-El Earth Young Justice. Superdemon Earth Superman Beyond. Colonel Kent Earth Justice Riders. Kal-El Earth Kingdom Come. Kal-El Earth League of Shamans. Dru-Zod Earth Liberty Files. Majestic Earth WildC. Apollo Earth The Authority. The High Earth The Changers. Kal-El Earth Countdown. Super-Menace Earth-One Energy force duplicate. An alien child is evacuated from his dying world and sent to Earth to live among humans.
His peace is threatened, when other survivors of his home planet invade Earth. Fearing that the actions of Superman are left unchecked, Batman takes on the Man of Steel, while the world wrestles with what kind of a hero it really needs.
Action, Adventure, Fantasy Announced. Sign In. Perry White Glenn Ford Pa Kent Trevor Howard Lois Lane Jack O'Halloran Non Valerie Perrine Eve Teschmacher Maria Schell Vond-Ah Terence Stamp General Zod Phyllis Thaxter Ma Kent Susannah York Lara Jeff East Taglines: The movie that makes a legend come to life. Edit Did You Know? This is because the cast are billed alphabetically.
Goofs In the extended version, when Otis crosses the street on his way to Luthor's HQ, he passes the same street sweeper twice. The first time, the sweeper says, "Hi, Otis. Quotes [ first lines ] Boy : In the decade of the s, even the great city of Metropolis was not spared the ravages of the worldwide depression.
In the times of fear and confusion, the job of informing the public was the responsibility of the Daily Planet, a great metropolitan newspaper whose reputation for clarity and truth had become a symbol of hope for the city of Metropolis User Reviews Classic that will remain past the ends of time Was this review helpful to you?
Robert Redford was offered a large sum, but felt he was too famous. Burt Reynolds also turned down the role, while Sylvester Stallone was interested, but nothing ever came of it.
When it was next decided to cast an unknown actor, casting director Lynn Stalmaster first suggested Christopher Reeve , but Donner and the producers felt he was too young and skinny. Olympic champion Bruce Jenner auditioned for the title role. Both Neil Diamond and Arnold Schwarzenegger lobbied hard for the role, but were ignored. James Caan said he was offered the part but turned it down. The search became so desperate that producer Ilya Salkind 's wife's dentist was screen tested.
Stalmaster convinced Donner and Ilya to have Reeve screen test in February Reeve stunned the director and producers, but he was told to wear a "muscle suit" to produce the desired muscular physique.
Reeve refused,   undertaking a strict physical exercise regime headed by David Prowse. Prowse had wanted to portray Superman, but was denied an audition by the filmmakers because he was not American. Prowse also auditioned for Non. Reeve went from to pounds during pre-production and filming. East's lines were overdubbed by Reeve during post-production.
Chris did a good job but it caused tension between us. We resolved our issues with each other years later. He applied 3 to 4 hours of prosthetic makeup daily to facially resemble Reeve.
Principal photography began on March 28, at Pinewood Studios for Krypton scenes, budgeted as the most expensive film ever made at that point. Since Superman was being shot simultaneously with Superman II , filming lasted nineteen months, until October Filming was originally scheduled to last between seven and eight months, but problems arose during production.
John Barry served as production designer , while Stuart Craig and Norman Reynolds worked as art directors. Derek Meddings and Les Bowie were credited as visual effects supervisors. Vic Armstrong was hired as the stunt coordinator and Reeve's stunt double ; his wife Wendy Leech was Kidder's double. Superman was also the final complete film by cinematographer Geoffrey Unsworth , who died during post-production while working on Tess for director Roman Polanski.
Due to complications and problems during filming, Warner Bros. Brooklyn Heights was also used. Production moved to Alberta for scenes set in Smallville , with the cemetery scene filmed in the canyon of Beynon, Alberta , the high school football scenes at Barons, Alberta , and the Kent farm constructed at Blackie, Alberta. Creative consultant Tom Mankiewicz reflected, "Donner never got a budget or a schedule. He was constantly told he was way over schedule and budget. At one point he said, 'Why don't you just schedule the film for the next two days, and then I'll be nine months over?
Lester was offered producing credit but refused, going uncredited for his work. He won a lot of his lawsuits, but each time he sued the Salkinds in one country, they'd move to another, from Costa Rica to Panama to Switzerland. When I was hired, Lester told me, 'Don't do it. Don't work for them. I was told not to, but I did it. Now I'm telling you not to, but you'll probably do it and end up telling the next guy. I didn't trust Lester, and I told him.
He said, 'Believe me, I'm only doing it because they're paying me the money that they owe me from the lawsuit. I'll never come onto your set unless you ask me; I'll never go to your dailies. If I can help you in any way, call me. It was decided to stop shooting Superman II and focus on finishing Superman.
Donner commented, "I decided if Superman is a success, they're going to do a sequel. If it ain't a success, a cliffhanger ain't gonna bring them to see Superman II. Superman contains large-scale visual effects sequences. The Golden Gate Bridge scale model stood 70 feet long and 20 feet wide. Slow motion was used to simulate the vast amount of water for the Hoover Dam destruction. The Fortress of Solitude was a combination of a full-scale set and matte paintings.
The car crashes on the Golden Gate Bridge were a mixture of models and stunt drivers on a disused runway. Young Clark Kent 's long-distance football punt was executed with a wooden football loaded into an air blaster placed in the ground. The Superman costume was to be a much darker blue, but the use of blue screen made it transparent.
For landings and take-offs, wire flying riggings were devised and used. On location, these were suspended from tower cranes, whereas in the studio elaborate rigs were suspended from the studio ceilings. Some of the wire-flying work was quite audacious—the penultimate shot where Superman flies out of the prison yard, for example. Counterweights and pulleys were typically used to achieve flying movement, rather than electronic or motorized devices.
The thin wires used to suspend Reeve were typically removed from the film in post-production using rotoscope techniques, although this wasn't necessary in all shots in certain lighting conditions or when Superman is very distant in the frame, the wires were more or less imperceptible. For stationary shots where Superman is seen flying toward or away from the camera, blue screen matte techniques were used. Reeve would be photographed suspended against a blue screen. While a special device made his cape flap to give the illusion of movement, the actor himself would remain stationary save for banking his body.
The blue background would then be photochemically removed and Reeve's isolated image would be 'inserted' into a matted area of a background plate shot. The zoom-ins or zoom-outs would give the appearance of flying away or toward the contents of the background plate.
The disparity in lighting and color between the matted image and the background plate, the occasional presence of black matte lines where the matte area and the matted image—in this case, Superman—do not exactly match up , and the slightly unconvincing impression of movement achieved through the use of zoom lenses is characteristic of these shots. Where the shot is tracking with Superman as he flies such as in the Superman and Lois Metropolis flying sequence , front projection was used.
The result was a very clear and intense photographic reproduction of both the actors and the background plate, with far less image deterioration or lighting problems than occur with rear projection. A technique was developed that combined the front projection effect with specially designed zoom lenses. For scenes where Superman interacts with other people or objects while in flight, Reeve and actors were put in a variety of rigging equipment with careful lighting and photography.
The highly reflective costumes worn by the Kryptonians are made of the same 3M material used for the front projection screens and were the result of an accident during Superman flying tests. There was a little light on each camera, and it would project into a mirror, bounce out in front of the lens, hit the costume, [and] millions of little glass beads would light up and bring the image back into the camera. He dropped out over scheduling conflicts, and John Williams was hired.
Williams conducted the London Symphony Orchestra to record the soundtrack. Billboard Hot and 69 Cash Box. It became a mid-chart hit on the Billboard Hot that year 52 , spending three weeks at number five on the U. Adult Contemporary chart, as well as making lesser appearances on the corresponding Canadian charts. It was also a very minor hit on the U. Country chart, reaching Both Williams' and McGovern's singles contained theme music from the score.
On February 15, , La-La Land Records released the fully expanded restoration of Williams' score as part of the film's 40th anniversary. Superman is divided into three basic sections, each having a distinct theme and visual style. The first segment, set on Krypton, is meant to be typical of science fiction films , but also lays the groundwork for an analogy that emerges in the relationship between Jor-El and Kal-El.Superman is one of the most scrutinized comic book heroes, as everyone has their own ideal image of what the Man of Steel ought to be. As a result, when even the most minute detail of Superman is changed or reworked, whatever issue or collection this was done in is labeled with negativity. Sometimes it is small, other times, not so much/5().