Homologs of the recA gene, including rad51 , play a key role in homologous recombinational repair of DNA during meiosis. A rad51 homolog is present in the anther of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum ,  suggesting that recombinational repair occurs during meiosis in tomato.
Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates, and cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia are specifically bred for indoor growing. In more temperate climates , it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. Greenhouse tomato production in large-acreage commercial greenhouses and owner-operator stand-alone or multiple-bay greenhouses is on the increase, providing fruit during those times of the year when field-grown fruit is not readily available.
Smaller sized fruit cherry and grape , or cluster tomatoes fruit-on-the-vine are the fruit of choice for the large commercial greenhouse operators while the beefsteak varieties are the choice of owner-operator growers. Hydroponic technique is often used in hostile growing environments, as well as high-density plantings. To facilitate transportation and storage, tomatoes are often picked unripe green and ripened in storage with ethylene. A machine-harvestable variety of tomato the "square tomato" was developed in the s by University of California, Davis 's Gordie C.
Hanna , which, in combination with the development of a suitable harvester, revolutionized the tomato-growing industry. This type of tomato is grown commercially near plants that process and can tomatoes, tomato sauce, and tomato paste.
They are harvested when ripe and are flavorful when picked. They are harvested 24 hours a day, seven days a week during a to week season, and immediately transported to packing plants, which operate on the same schedule.
California is a center of this sort of commercial tomato production and produces about a third of the processed tomatoes produced in the world.
In , Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the FlavrSavr , which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life.
However, the product was not commercially successful, and was sold only until The world dedicated 4. Tomato farms in the Netherlands were the most productive in , with a nationwide average of tonnes per hectare, followed by Belgium tonnes per hectare and Iceland tonnes per hectare. As of , the heaviest tomato harvested, weighed 3. A massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort 's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista, Florida may have been the largest single tomato plant in the world.
Yong Huang, Epcot 's manager of agricultural science, discovered the unique plant in Beijing, China. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow.
The vine grew golf ball -sized tomatoes, which were served at Walt Disney World restaurants. Though it is botanically a berry , a subset of fruit , the tomato is a vegetable for culinary purposes because of its savory flavor see below. Although tomatoes originated in the Americas, they have become extensively used in Mediterranean cuisine.
Ripe tomatoes contain significant umami flavor and they are a key ingredient in pizza , and are commonly used in pasta sauces. The tomato is now grown and eaten around the world.
It is used in diverse ways, including raw in salads or in slices, stewed, incorporated into a wide variety of dishes, or processed into ketchup or tomato soup.
Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried , used to make salsa , or pickled. Tomato juice is sold as a drink , and is used in cocktails such as the Bloody Mary. Tomatoes keep best unwashed at room temperature and out of direct sunlight.
It is not recommended to refrigerate them as this can harm the flavor. Storing stem down can prolong shelf life,  as it may keep from rotting too quickly. Tomatoes that are not yet ripe can be kept in a paper bag till ripening. Tomatoes are easy to preserve whole, in pieces, as tomato sauce or paste by home canning. They are acidic enough to process in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as most vegetables require.
The fruit is also preserved by drying, often in the sun, and sold either in bags or in jars with oil. The leaves, stem, and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant contain small amounts of the alkaloid tomatine , whose effect on humans has not been studied. Small amounts of tomato foliage are sometimes used for flavoring without ill effect, and the green fruit of unripe red tomato varieties is sometimes used for cooking, particularly as fried green tomatoes.
Compared to potatoes, the amount of solanine in unripe green or fully ripe tomatoes is low. However, even in the case of potatoes, while solanine poisoning resulting from dosages several times normal human consumption has been demonstrated, actual cases of poisoning from excessive consumption of potatoes are rare. Tomato plants can be toxic to dogs if they eat large amounts of the fruit, or chew plant material.
Tomatoes were linked to seven Salmonella outbreaks between and ,  and may have been the cause of a salmonellosis outbreak causing illnesses in 18 US states in No conclusive evidence indicates that the lycopene in tomatoes or in supplements affects the onset of cardiovascular diseases or cancer.
In the United States, supposed health benefits of consuming tomatoes, tomato products or lycopene to affect cancer cannot be mentioned on packaged food products without a qualified health claim statement. The Potato Tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family Solanaceae such as tomato plants.
Female P. In Ontario , Canada, member of provincial parliament Mike Colle introduced a private member's bill in March to name the tomato as the official vegetable of the province and to designate 15 July as Tomato Day, in order to acknowledge the tomato's importance in Ontario's agriculture. Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law, citing both its culinary and botanical classifications.
In , the state of Ohio passed a law making the tomato the state's official fruit. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since Livingston , of Reynoldsburg, Ohio , played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 19th century; his efforts are commemorated in Reynoldsburg with an annual Tomato Festival.
Flavr Savr was the first commercially grown genetically engineered food licensed for human consumption. Tomatoes are a popular "nonlethal" throwing weapon in mass protests, and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century; today this is usually referenced as a metaphor.
Embracing it for this protest connotation, the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo.
The US city of Reynoldsburg, Ohio calls itself "The Birthplace of the Tomato", claiming the first commercial variety of tomato was bred there in the 19th century. Several US states have adopted the tomato as a state fruit or vegetable see above. The name "Rotten Tomatoes" derives from the practice of audiences throwing rotten tomatoes when disapproving of a poor stage performance.
Three Cherry Tomatoes Canvas Print. Chile Verde Canvas Print. Cherry tomatoes Canvas Print. Bumper Crop Canvas Print. Last Tomatoes from my Garden Canvas Print. Bumper Crop of Heirlooms Canvas Print. Tomato Juice Canvas Print. Tomatoes in Green Tray Canvas Print. Growing Romas Canvas Print.
Fresh from the Garden Canvas Print. Tomatoes in Viola's Garden Canvas Print. Yellow Leucospermum Canvas Print. Cuisine IIi Canvas Print. Una Buona Pasta! Canvas Print. Composition Canvas Print. Summer Offering Canvas Print. Tomato Ninja Canvas Print. Women's Apparel. Youth Apparel. Tomato Paintings In an artistic manner, the tomato can be enjoyed in its solitary splendor or as a component in a still life of colorful foods. Results: 2, Filters 1. Results: 2, Filters.
More from This Artist Similar Designs. You Say Tomato Les Beaux L? Jump Forward: 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Search Type Keywords. Department Wall Art. Product All. Stationery Greeting Cards Notebooks. How to understand the way tomato varieties are classified. A determinate and an indeterminate? Burpee Seed Catalog offers mail-order tomato seeds, plants, and gardening supplies.
Register a free business account. Have a question? There was a problem completing your request. Please try your search again later.
Important information Legal Disclaimer Statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. Compare with similar items. This item Top Cigarette Paper. Top Cigarette Rolling Papers, 3 packs. See questions and answers. Customer reviews. How are ratings calculated? Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon.
It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. Customer images. See all customer images. Top reviews Most recent Top reviews. Top reviews from the United States. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Verified Purchase.
I ordered through alt seller the time before. I'll stick with amazon. I quit smoking years ago. What would be the effect of vaping e-liquid with caffeine instead of nicotine? DaveP, I was under the impression that the absurd taxes the fda puts on cigarettes was tobacco products, not nicotine products. I wasn't aware of that. Jan 10, Canada. Mmmmmm, tomacco. Simpsons reference for those that remember the episode.1 Set Solar Cigarette Lighter Cigars Lighter Tobacco Tourist Waterproof Outdoor. $ 2 sold. Bugler Filter King Size Tubes 1 Box of - $ 2 sold. King Sized Marbled Cigarette Case for RYO Cigarettes. $ 1 sold. Save It! Durable Black Pen Shaped Cigarette Saver Tube, Cigarette .